Psychoactive Substance Abuse

  • Howard B. Moss
  • Ihsan M. Salloum
  • Barry Fisher

Abstract

Substance use disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions among the general population (Robins, Helzer, Weissman, Orvaschel, Gruenberg, Bruke, & Regier, 1984). These conditions constitute a major public health problem and result in enormous economic costs to society (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA], 1991). Numerous definitions and taxonomic schemata have been advanced to characterize these disorders (Hill, 1985; Meyer, 1986). The two most widely accepted ones, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) (World Health Organization [WHO], 1977) and the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), are periodically modified. These periodic changes in definition highlight the many uncertainties that surround the criteria for these disorders.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Morphine Serotonin Smoke Aniline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, E. L. (1977). The relationship between cannabis and violence: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 193–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agar, M. (1973). Ripping and running: A formal ethnography of urban heroin addicts. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexopoulos, G., Lieberman, K., & Frances, R. (1983). Platelet MAO activity in alcoholic patients and their first-degree relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 150–154.Google Scholar
  4. Anglin, M. D. (1988). The efficacy of civil commitment in treating narcotics addiction. In C. G. Leukefeld & E M. Tims (Eds.), Compulsory treatment of drug abuse: Research and clinical practice (NIDA Research Monograph, pp. 8–34). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  5. Angrist, B. M., & Gershon, S. (1969). Amphetamine abuse in New York City-1966–1968. Seminars in Psychiatry, 1, 195–207.Google Scholar
  6. Asberg, M., Traskman, L., & Thoren, P. (1976). 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor? Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1193–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition, Revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association (1993). DSM-IV draft criteria. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Bach-Y-Rita, G., Lion, J. R., & Ervin, E R. (1970). Pathological intoxication: Clinical and electroencephalographic studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 698–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ball, J. C., Rosen, L., Flueck, J. A., & Nurco, D. N. (1982). Lifetime criminality of heroin addicts in the United States. Journal of Drug Issues, II, 225–239.Google Scholar
  11. Ballenger, J., Goodwin, E, Major, L., & Brown, G. (1979). Alcohol and central serotonin metabolism in man. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 224–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barraclough, B., Bunch, J., Nelson, B., & Sainsbury, P. (1974). A hundred cases of suicide: Clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 355–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Trexler, L. D. (1989). Alcohol abuse and eventual suicide: A 5- to 10-year prospective study of alcohol-abusing suicide attempters. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 202–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., Bihari, B., & Kissin, B. (1984). Event-related brain potentials in boys at risk for alcoholism. Science, 225, 1493–1496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berglund, M. (1984). Suicide in alcoholism: A prospective study of 88 suicides. I. The multidimensional diagnosis at first admission. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 888–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beskow, J., Gottfries, C. G., Roos, B. E., & Winblad, B. (1976). Determination of monoamine and monoamine metabolites in the human brain: Postmortem studies in a group of suicides and in a control group. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 53, 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum, R. J. (1969). Drugs and violence. In D. J. Mulhill, M. M. Tunin, & L. A. Curtis (Eds.), Crimes of violence (pp. 1461–1523). National Commission for the Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
  18. Borg, S. E., & Stahl, M. (1982). Prediction of suicide: A prospective study of suicides and controls among psychiatric patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 65, 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowers, M. B. (1977). Psychoses precipitated by psychomimetic drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 832–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, G., Ebert, M., Goyer, P, Emerson, D., Klein, W., Bunney, W., & Goodwin, E (1982). Aggression, suicide, and serotonin: Relationships to CSF amine metabolites. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 741–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, G., Goodwin, E, Ballenger, J., Goyer, P., & Major, L. (1979). Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid metabolites. Psychiatry Research, 1, 131–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bry, B. H., McKeon, P, & Pandina, R. (1982). Extent of drug use as a function of number of risk factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 273–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Budd, R. D. (1989). Cocaine abuse and violent death. American Journal of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, 15, 375–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cahalan, D., & Room, R. (1974). Problem drinking among American men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center for Alcohol Studies.Google Scholar
  25. Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., Kelly, T. H., & Robinson, D. E. (1986). Effects of d-amphetamine on human aggressive behavior. Psychopharmacology, 88, 381–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., Kelly, T. H., & Robinson, D. (1987). Effects of d-amphetamine on aggressive responsing of normal male subjects. Psychiatry Research, 21, 257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., & Vines, R. V. (1984). Low doses of alcohol affect human aggressive responses. Biological Psychiatry,19,263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chiles, J. A., Strosahi, K., Cowden, L., Graham, R., & Lineham, M. (1986). The 24 hours before hospitalizations: Factors related to suicide attempting. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 16, 335–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cho, A. K. (1990). Ice: A new dosage form of an old drug. Science, 249, 631–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chopra, G. S., & Smith, J. W. (1974). Psychotic reactions following cannabis use in East Indians. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 24–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chynoweth, R., Tonge, J. I., & Armstrong, J. (1980). Suicide in Brisbane: A retrospective psychosocial study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clayton, R. R., & Voss, H. L. (1981). Young men and drugs in Manhattan: A causal analysis (NIDA Research Monograph No. 39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  33. Cotton, N. (1979). The familial incidence of alcoholism. A review. Journal of Studies of Alcohol,40,89–116.Google Scholar
  34. Crowley, T. J., Chesluk, D., Dilts, S., & Hart, R. (1974). Drug and alcohol abuse among psychiatric admissions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Darmani, N. A., Hadfield, M. G., Carter, W. H., & Martin, B. R. (1990). Acute and chronic effects of cocaine on isolation-induced aggression in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 102, 37–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dermen, K. H., & George, W. H. (1989). Alcohol expectancy and the relationship between drinking and physical aggression. The Journal of Psychology, 123, 153–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dole, V. P., & Joseph, H. (1970). Long term outcomes of patients treated with methadone. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 311, 181–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dropat, T. L., & Ripley, H. S. (1960). A study of suicide in the Seattle area. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1, 349–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Du Pont, R. L. (1988). Abuse of Benzodiazepines: The problems and the solutions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14(Suppl. 1), 1–69.Google Scholar
  40. Edwards, G., & Gross, M. M. (1976). Alcohol dependence: Provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1058–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eichelman, B. (1978). Animal models: Their role in the study of aggressive behavior in humans. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology,2,663–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellinwood, E. H. (1970). Assault and homicide associated with amphetamine abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 1170–1175.Google Scholar
  43. Evans, C. M. (1980). Alcohol, violence and aggression. British Journal on Alcohol and Alcoholism, 15, 104–117.Google Scholar
  44. Fauman, B., Aldinger, G., & Fauman, M. (1976). Psychiatric sequelae of phencyclidine abuse. Clinical Toxicology, 9, 529–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fauman, M. A. (1978). Treatment of the agitated patient with an organic brain disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association,240,380–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fauman, M. A., & Fauman, B. J. (1979). Violence associated with phencyclidine abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1584–1586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fiddle, S. (1976). Sequences in addiction. Addictive Diseases, 2, 553–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fowler, R. C., Rich, C. L., & Young, D. (1986). San Diego suicide study. II. Substance abuse in young cases. Archives of General Psychiatry,43,962–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frances, A., Pincus, H. A., Widiger, T. A., Davis, W. W, & First, M. D. (1990). DMS-IV. Work in progress. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1439–1448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Frances, R. J., & Franklin, J. E. (1989). A concise guide to treatment of alcoholism and addiction. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  51. Gallant, D. M. (1985). Alcoholism: The most common psychiatric illness. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 9, 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gawin, E H., & Ellinwood, E. H. (1989). Stimulants: Actions, abuse and treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 381, 1173–1183.Google Scholar
  53. Goldstein, P J. (1985). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 13, 493–506.Google Scholar
  54. Gomberg, E. (1982). The young male alcoholic: A pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 683–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Goodwin, D. W. (1973). Alcohol in suicide and homicide. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol,34, 144–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gorenstein, E. E., & Newman, J. P. (1980). Disinhibitory psychopathy: A new perspective and a model for research. Psychological Review, 87, 301–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Graham, K., La Rocque, L., Yetman, R., Ross, T. J., & Guistra, E. (1980). Aggression and barroom environments. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 277–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Griffin, M. L., Weiss, R. D., Mirin, S. M., & Lange, U. (1989). A comparison of male and female cocaine abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 122–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grinspoon, L. (1977). Marihuana reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Grove, W. M., Eckert, E. D., Heston, L., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N., & Lykken, D. T. (1990). Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: A study of monozygotic twins reared apart. Biological Psychiatry, 27, 1293–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gustafson, R. (1985). Alcohol and aggression: Pharmacological versus expectancy effects. Psychological Reports, 57, 955–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gustafson, R. (1986). Threat as a determinant of alcohol-related aggression. Psychological Reports, 58, 287–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haertzen, C. A., & Hooks, N. T. (1969). Changes in personality and subjective experience associated with the chronic administration and withdrawal of opiates. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 148, 606–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hamm, M. S. (1990). Addicts helping addicts to help themselves: The Baltimore City Jail Project. In R. Weisheit (Ed.), Drugs,crime and the criminal justice system (pp. 361–381). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.Google Scholar
  65. Hanlon, T. E., Nurco, D. N., Kinlock, T. W., & Duszynski, K. R. (1990). Trends in criminal activity and drug use over an addiction career. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16, 223–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harruff, R. C., Francisco, J. T., Elkins, S. K., Phillips, A. M., & Fernandez, G. S. (1988). Cocaine and homicide in Memphis and Shelby county: An epidemic of violence. Journal of Forensic Science, 33, 1231–1237.Google Scholar
  67. Hasstrup, S., & Jepsen, P. W. (1984). Seven year follow-up of 300 young drug abusers. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 70, 503–509.Google Scholar
  68. Hawkins, J., Catalano, R., Gillmore, R., & Wells, E. (1989). Skills training for drug abusers: Generalization, maintenance, and effects on drug use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hawton, K. (1987). Assessment of suicide risk. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 145–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., Perlman, T., & Angel, R. (1984). Hyperactives as young adults: Past and current substance abuse and antisocial behavior. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 415–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Heise, H A. (1934). Alcohol and automobile accidents. Journal of the American Medical Association,103, 739–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Helzer, J. E., & Pryzbeck, T. R. (1988). The co-occurrence of alcoholism with other psychiatric disorders in the general population and its impact on treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hesselbrock, M. N., Meyer, R. E., & Keener, J. J. (1985). Psychopathology in hospitalized alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 1050–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hesselbrock, M., Hesselbrock, V., Syzmanski, K., & Weidenman, M. (1988). Suicide attempts and alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 436–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hill, S. Y. (1985). The disease concept of alcoholism: A review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 16, 193–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Honer, W. G., Gewirtz, G., & Thkey, M. (1987). Psychosis and violence in cocaine smokers. The Lancet, II, 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hood, I., Ryan, D., Monforte, J., & Valentour, J. (1990). Cocaine in Waybe County Medical Examiner’s cases. Journal of Forensic Science, 35, 591–600.Google Scholar
  78. Huba, G. J., & Bentler, P. M. (1980). The role of peer and adult models for drug taking at different stages in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9, 449–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Inciardi, J. A. (1986). The war on drugs. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  80. Intagliata, J. (1978). Increasing the interpersonal problem-solving skills of an alcoholic population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 489–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. James, I. P (1967). Suicide and mortality amongst heroin addicts in Britain. British Journal of Addiction, 62, 391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jeavons, C. M., & Taylor, S. P. (1985). The control of alcohol-related aggression: Redirecting the inebriate’s attention to socially appropriate conduct. Aggressive Behavior, 11, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. (1975). Adolescent development and the onset of drinking: A longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36, 27–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. Joe, G. W., Lehman, W., & Simpson, D. D. (1982). Addict rates during a four-year post-treatment follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatric Health,72, 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1989). National trends in drug use and related factors among American high school students and young adults, 1975–1988 (DHHS Publication No. ADM 87–1535). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  87. Jones, R. T. (1973). Mental illness and drugs: Pre-existing psychopathology and response to psychoactive drugs. In Drug use in America: Problem in perspective (pp. 373–397). Washington, DC: National Commission on Marihuana & Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  88. Karan, L. D., Haller, D. L., & Schnoll, S. H. (1991). Cocaine. In R. J. Frances & S. I. Miller (Eds.), Clinical textbook of addictive disorders (pp. 122–123). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  89. Kelly, T. H., Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., & Robinson, D. (1988). Effects of provocation and alcohol on human aggressive behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 21, 105–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Khajawall, A. M., Erickson, T. B., & Simpson, G. M. (1982). Chronic phencyclidine abuse and physical assault. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1604–1606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kosten, T. R., & Rounsaville, B. J. (1988). Suicidality among opioid addicts: 2.5 year follow-up. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14, 357–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kosten, T. R., Rounsaville, B. J., & Kleber, H. D. (1987). A 2.5 year follow-up of cocaine use among treated opioid addicts: Have our treatments helped? Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 281–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lang, A. R., Goeckner, D. J., Adesso, V. J., & Marlatt, G. A. (1975). Effects of alcohol on aggression in male social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 508–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lindenbaum, G. A., Carroll, S. E, Daskal, I., & Kapusnick, R. (1989). Patterns of alcohol and drug abuse in an urban trauma center: The increasing role of cocaine abuse. Journal of Trauma, 29, 1654–1658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Luisada, P C., & Brown, B. I. (1976). Clinical management of the phencyclidine psychosis. Clinical Toxicology, 9, 539–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Maletzky, B. M. (1976). The diagnosis of pathological intoxication. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 37, 1215–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mandelbaum, D. (1965). Alcohol and culture. Current Anthropology, 6, 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mann, J. J., Stanley, M., McBride, A., & McEwen, B. S. (1986). Increased serotonin-2 and beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the frontal cortices of suicide victims. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 954–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Marlatt, G. A., & Rohsenow, D. J. (1980). Cognitive processes in alcohol use: Expectancy and the balanced placebo design. In N. K. Mellon (Ed.), Advances in substance abuse: Behavioral and biological research (pp. 159–199). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  100. Maull, K. I. (1982). Alcohol abuse. Its implications in trauma care. Southern Medical Journal, 75, 794–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McBride, D. C., & Swartz, J. A. (1990). Drugs and violence in the age of crack cocaine. In R. Weisheit (Ed.), Drugs, crime and the criminal justice system (pp. 141–169). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.Google Scholar
  102. McCord, W., & McCord, J. (1960). Origins of alcoholism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. McGlothlin, W. H., Anglin, M. D., & Wilson, B. D. (1978). Narcotic addiction and crime. Criminology, 16, 293–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mendelson, J. H., & Mello, N. K. (1985). Diagnostic criteria for alcoholism and alcohol abuse. In J. H. Mendelson and N. K. Mello (Eds.), The diagnosis & treatment of alcoholism (pp. 2–18). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  105. Meyer, R. E. (1986). How to understand the relationship between psychopathology and addictive disorders: Another example of the chicken and the egg. In R. E. Meyer (Ed.), Psychopathology and addictive disorders (pp. 3–16). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  106. Miczek, K. A., & Krsiak, M. (1979). Drug effects on agonistic behavior. In P B. Dews (Ed.), Advances in behavioral pharmacology (pp. 88–163). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Mirin, S., & Weiss, R. (1983). Substance abuse. In E. L. Bassuk, S. C. Schoonover, & A. J. Gelenbert (Eds.), The practitioner’s guide to psychoactive drugs (2nd ed.) (pp. 271–291). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  108. Moon, J., & Eisler, R. (1983). Anger control: An experimental comparison of three behavioral treatments. Behavior Therapy, 14, 493–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Moss, H. B. (1987). Serotonergic activity and disinhibitory psychopathy in alcoholism. Medical Hypotheses, 23, 353–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Moss, H. B., Guthrie, S., & Linnoila, M. (1986). Enhanced thyrotropin response to thryrotropin releasing hormone in boys at risk for the development of alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1137–1141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Moss, H. B., Yao, J. K., & Panzak, G. L. (1990). Serotonergic responsivity and behavioral dimensions in antisocial personality disorder with substance abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 28, 325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Motto, J. A. (1980). Suicide risk factors in alcohol abuse. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior,10, 230–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Muehlberger, C. W. (1956). Medicolegal aspects of alcohol intoxication. Michigan State Bar Journal, 35, 38–42.Google Scholar
  114. Murdoch, D. D., Pihl, R. O., & Ross, D. (1988). The influence of dose, beverage type and sex of interactor on female bar patron’s verbal aggression. International Journal of Addictions, 23, 953–966.Google Scholar
  115. Murdock, D., & Pihl, R. O. (1985). Alcohol and aggression in group interaction. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Murphy, G. E. (1986). Suicide in alcoholism. In A. Roy (Ed.), Suicide (pp. 89–96). Baltimore: Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  117. Murphy, G. E. (1988). Suicide and substance abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 593–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Murphy, G. E., & Robins, E. (1967). Social factors in suicide. Journal of the American Medical Association, 199, 303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Murphy, G. E., Armstrong, J. W., Hermel, S. L., Fischer, J. R., & Clendenin, W. W. (1979). Suicide and alcoholism: Interpersonal loss confirmed as predictor. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 65–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Murray, R. M., Clifford, C. A., Gurling, H. M. D., Topham, A., Clow, A., & Bernadt, M. (1983). Current genetic and biological approaches to alcoholism. Psychiatric Developments, 2, 179–192.Google Scholar
  121. Myerscough, R., & Taylor, S. (1985). The effects of marijuana on human physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1541–1546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1991). Estimating the economic cost of alcohol abuse. Alcohol Alert, 11 (p. 293). Washington, DC: D.H.H.S.Google Scholar
  123. National Institute on Drug Abuse (1988). 1987 annual data. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) (DHHS Publication No. ADM 88–1584). Washington, DC: D.H.H.S.Google Scholar
  124. Nurco, D. N., Hanlon, T. E., Kinlock, T. W., & Duszynski, K. R. (1988). Differential criminal patterns of narcotic addicts over an addiction career. Criminology, 26, 407–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Nurco, D. N., Shaffer, J. W., Ball, J. C., & Kinlock, T. W. (1984). Trends in the commission of crime among narcotic addicts over successive periods of addiction and nonaddiction. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 10, 481–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nurco, D. N., Shaffer, J. W., Ball, J. C., Kinlock, T. W., & Langrod, J. (1986). A comparison by ethnic group and city of the criminal activities of narcotic addicts. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 112–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ohlsson, A., Lindgren, J. E., Wahlen, A., Agurell, S., Hollister, L. E., & Gillespie, B. A. (1980). Plasma delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics,28, 409–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Permanen, K. (1976). Alcohol and crimes of violence. In B. Kissin & H. Begleiter (Eds.), The biology of alcoholism (pp. 351–444). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  129. Perrine, M. W. (1975). Alcohol involvement in highway crashes. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 2, 11–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Petronis, K. R., Samuels, J. E, Moscicki, E. K., & Anthony, J. C. (1990). An epidemiologic investigation of potential risk factors for suicide attempts. Social Psychiatry of Epidemiology, 25, 193–199.Google Scholar
  131. Pickens, R. W., Svikis, D. S., McGue, M., Lykken, D. T., Heston, L. L., & Clayton, P. J. (1991). Heterogeneity in the inheritance of alcoholism. A study of male and female twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pihl, R. O., Finn, P., & Peterson, J. (1989). Autonomic hyperreactivity and risk for alcoholism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biologic Psychiatry,13, 489–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pihl, R. O., Smith, M., & Farrell, B. (1984). Alcohol and aggression in men: A comparison of brewed and distilled beverages. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Pihl, R. O., Zacchia, C., & Zeichner, A. (1982). Predicting levels of aggression after alcohol intake in men social drinkers: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Pliner, P., Cappell, H., & Miles, C. G. (1972). Observer judgments of intoxicated behavior during social interaction: A comparison of alcohol and marijuana. In J. M. Singh, L. H. Miller, & H. Lal (Eds.), Drug addiction (pp. 59–67). Mt. Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing.Google Scholar
  136. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1988). Nature and nurture during infancy and early childhood. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rada, R. T. (1975). Alcoholism and forcible rape. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 444–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locker, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., & Goodwin, E K. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2511–2518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Reiss, D., Plomin, R., & Hetherington, E. M. (1991). Genetics and psychiatry: An unheralded window on the environment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 283–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rich, C. L., Fowler, R. C., Fogarty, L. A., & Young, D. (1988). San Diego suicide study: III. Relationships between diagnosis and stressors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 589–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Robins, E. (1986). Completed suicide. In A. Roy (Ed.), Suicide. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  142. Robins, E., Murphy, G. E., Wilkinson, R. H., Gassner, S., & Kayes, J. (1959). Some clinical considerations in the prevention of suicide based on a study of 134 successful suicides. American Journal of Public Health, 49, 888–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  144. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, H., Gruenberg, E., Bruke, J. D., & Regier, D. A. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Roy, A. (1989). Suicide. In H. Kaplan (Ed.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry V (pp. 1414–1427). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  146. Roy, A., Adinoff, G., & Linnoila, M. (1988). Acting out hostility in normal volunteers: Negative correlation with levels of 5-HIAA in cerebrospinal fluid. Psychiatry Research, 24, 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Russel, J. A., & Mehrabian, A. (1975). The mediating role of emotions in alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36, 1508–1536.Google Scholar
  148. Sanborn, D. E., Sanborn, C. J., & Cimbolic, P. (1973). Two years of suicide: A study of adolescent suicide in New Hampshire. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,3, 234–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schuckit, M. A. (1973). Alcoholism and sociopathy-Diagnostic confusion. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 34, 157–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schuckit, M. A. (1980). Self-rating of alcohol intoxication by young men with and without family histories of alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 242–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Schuckit, M. A., Parker, D., & Rossman, L. (1983). Ethanol-related prolactin responses and risk for alcoholism. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 1153–1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shaffer, J. W, Nurco, D. N., & Kinlock, T. W. (1984). A new classification of narcotic addicts based on type and extent of criminal activity. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 25, 315–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Shea, S. C. (1988). Exploring suicidal and homicidal ideation. In Psychiatric interviewing: The art of understanding. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.Google Scholar
  154. Sher, K. J., & Levenson, R. W (1982). Risk for alcoholism and individual differences in the stress-responsedampening effect of alcohol. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 350–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shuntich, R. J., & Taylor, S. P (1972). The effects of alcohol on human physical aggression. Journal of Experimental Research on Personality,6, 34–38.Google Scholar
  156. Simpson, D. D., Joe, G. W, & Bracy, S. A. (1989). Six year follow-up of opioid addicts after admission to treatment. American Psychiatric Association Task Force (Eds.), Treatment of psychiatric disorders (Vol. 2) (pp. 1218–1241). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  157. Smart, R. G. (1980). Availability and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. In T. C. Harford, D. A. Parker, & L. Light (Eds.), Normative approaches to the prevention of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (pp. 123–157). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.Google Scholar
  158. Sonneck, G. (1982). Crisis interventions and suicide preventions. III. Recidivism. Psychiatric Clinical (Basel), 15, 60–96.Google Scholar
  159. Stephens, R. C., & McBride, D. C. (1976). Becoming a street addict. Human Organization, 35, 87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Tardiff, K., Gross, E., Wu, J., Stajic, M., & Millman, R. (1989). Analysis of cocaine-positive fatalities. Journal of Forensic Science, 34, 53–63.Google Scholar
  161. Tarter, R. E., Kabene, M., Escallier, E. A., Laird, S. B., & Jacob, T. (1990). Temperament deviation and risk for alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14, 380–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Taylor, S. P, & Gammon, C. B. (1975). Effects of type and dose of alcohol on human physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,32, 169–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Taylor, S. P., & Gammon, C. B. (1976). Aggression behavior of intoxicated subjects: The effect of third-party intervention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 37, 917–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Taylor, S. P., & Sears, J. D. (1988). The effects of alcohol and persuasive social pressure on human physical aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Tellegen, A., Bouchard, T. J., Wilcox, K. H., Segal, N. L., Lykken, D. T., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1031–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tennant, F S., Detels, R., & Clark, V (1975). Some antecedents of drug and alcohol abuse. American Journal of Epidemiology, 102, 377–384.Google Scholar
  167. Tunving, K. (1988). Fatal outcome in drug addiction. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 551–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Vaillant, G. E. (1970). The natural history of narcotic addiction. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 486–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Vaillant, G. E. (1973). A twenty-year follow-up of New York narcotic addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Vaillant, G. (1983). The natural history of alcoholism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  171. van Ree, J. M., Niesink, R. J., & Nir, I. (1984). Delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol but not cannabidiol reduces contact and aggressive behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 84, 561–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Virkkunen, M. (1974). Alcohol as a factor precipitating aggression and conflict behavior leading to homicide. British Journal of Addiction, 69, 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Watkins, V. M., & McCoy, C. B. (1980). Drug use among urban Appalachian youths. In V. M. Watkins & C. B. McCoy (Eds.), Drug abuse patterns among young poly-drug abusers and urban Appalachian youths (NIDA Services Research Report, DHHS Publication No. 801002, pp. 17–34). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  174. Weddington, W., Brown, B., Haertzen, C., Cone, E., Dax, E., Herning, R., & Michaelson, B. (1990). Changes in mood, craving, and sleep during short-term abstinence reported by male cocaine addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 861–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wolfgang, M. E., & Strohm, R. B. (1956). The relationship between alcohol and criminal homicide. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 17, 411–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. World Health Organization (1977). Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, inquirer and causes of death (9th rev. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  177. Yago, K. B., Pitts, E N. Jr., Burgoyne, R. N., Aniline, O., Yago, L. S., & Pitts, A. E (1981). The urban epidemic of phencyclidine (PCP) use. Clinical and laboratory evidence from a public psychiatric hospital emergency service. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 193–196.Google Scholar
  178. Zeichner, A., & Pihl, R. O. (1980). Effects of alcohol and instigator intent on human aggression. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 265–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Zuckerman, M. (1972). Drug usage as one manifestation of “sensation seeking.” In W. Keup (Ed.), Drug abuse: Current concepts and research (pp. 154–163). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard B. Moss
    • 1
  • Ihsan M. Salloum
    • 1
  • Barry Fisher
    • 1
  1. 1.Comprehensive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations