Online Arithmetic

  • Richard Hartley
  • Keshab K. Parhi
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 316)


The topic of most-significant-digit-first (msd-first) serial arithmetic has been discussed in the literature of computer arithmetic for many years starting with the paper of Avizienis in 1961 ([90]). The basic idea can also be applied to the design of parallel arithmetic cells for avoiding ripple-carry propagation. It relies on the use of a redundant format number representation to allow serial operations to proceed in a most-significant-bit first mode. The particular number representation used is also called signed-digit number representation and computation using signed-digit number representations and msd-first serial arithmetic has come to be known as online arithmetic.


Clock Cycle Partial Product Redundant Representation Redundant Number Input Operand 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Hartley
    • 1
  • Keshab K. Parhi
    • 2
  1. 1.General Electrical CRDUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaUSA

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