Simulations of Intersegmental Coordination during Swimming in the Lamprey using a Continuous Network Model

  • Tom Wadden
  • Jeanette Hellgren
  • Anders Lansner
  • Sten Grillner
Conference paper


Swimming in the lamprey involves the coordination of alternating burst activity in the left and right sides of each spinal segment, with a frequency from.25 to 8-10 Hz. R.ostrocauda.l time delays between burst onset in each segment produce a laterally directed traveling wave which propels the animal forwards through the water. A reversed direction of the wave results in backward swimming [1, 2]. The intersegmental phase lag (Fig 1A) is considered independent of swimming speed and is, in the isolated spinal cord, approximately 1%/segment, although values of ±2% can be recorded [3].


Segmental Network Excitatory Drive Intersegmental Coordination Central Pattern Generator Network Forward Swimming 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Grillner, S., “On the generation of locomotion in the spinal dogfish,” Exp. Brain Res.. vol. 20, 1974, pp. 459–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Wallén, P. and Williams, T., “Fictive locomotion in the lamprey spinal cord in vitro compared with swimming in the intact and spinal animal,” J. Physiol., vol. 347, 1984, pp. 225–239.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Matsushima, T. and Grillner, S., “Neural mechanisims of intersegmental coordination in lamprey - local excitability changes modify the phase coupling along the entire spinal cord.,” J. Neurophysiol., vol. 67, 1992, pp. 373–388.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Buchanan, J. and Grillner, S., “Newly identified ‘glutamate interneurons’ and their role in locomotion in the lamprey spinal cord,” Science, vol. 236, 1987, pp. 312–314.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Grillner, S., Wallén, P., Brodin, L., and Lansner, A., “Neuronal network generating locomotor behavior in lamprey: Circuitry, transmitters, membrane properties and simulations,” Ann. Rev. Neurosci., vol. 14, 1991, pp. 169–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ekeberg, O., Wallén, P., Lansner, A., Trávén, H., Brodin, L., and Grillner, S., “A computer based model for realistic simulations of neural networks. I: The single neuron and synaptic interaction,” Biol. Cybern., vol. 65, no. 2, 1991, pp. 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Hellgren, J., Grillner, S., and Lansner, A., “Computer simulation of the segmental neural network generating locomotion in the lamprey by using populations of network interneurons,” Biol. Cybern., vol. 68, no. 1, 1992, pp. 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Kopell, N. and Ermentrout, G., “Coupled oscillators and the design of central pattern generators,” Math. Biosci., vol. 89, 1988, pp. 14–23.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Cohen, A. H., Ermentrout, G., Kiemel, T., Sigvardt, K., and Williams, T. L., “Modelling of intersegmental coordination in the lamprey central pattern generator for locomotion,” Trends Neurosci., vol. 15, 1992, pp. 434–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Buchanan, J., “Neural network simulations of coupled locomotor oscillators in the lamprey spinal cord,” Biol. Cybern., vol. 66, 1992, pp. 367–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Williams, T., “Phase coupling by synaptic spread in chains of coupled neuronal oscillators,” Science, vol. 258, 1992, pp. 662–665.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Wadden, T., Grillner, S., Matsushima, T., and Lansner, A. “Undulatory locomotion — simulations with realistic segmental oscillators,”. in Proceedings of Computation and Neural Systems 92 (Eeckman, F. H. and Bower, J. M., eds.), Kluwer, pp. 301–306.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Ekeberg, O., “A combined neuronal and mechanical model of fish swimming,” Biol. Cybern., vol. 69, no. 5, 1993, pp. 363–374.MATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Wallén, P., Ekeberg, O., Lansner, A., Brodin, L., Trávén, H., and Grillner, S., “A computer based model for realistic simulations of neural networks: II. the segmental network generating locomotor rythmicity in the lamprey,” J. Neurophysiol., vol. 68, 1992, pp. 1939–1950.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Ferrar, C. and Williams, T., “The effects of cell duplication and noise in a pattern generating network,” Neural Computation, vol. 5, 1993, pp. 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Ekeberg, O., Stensmo, M., and Lansner, A., “SWIM - a simulator for real neural networks,” Technical Report No. TRITA-NA-P9014, Dept. of Numerical Analysis and Computing Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Wadden
    • 1
  • Jeanette Hellgren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anders Lansner
    • 1
  • Sten Grillner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Numerical Analysis and Computing Science Royal Institute of TechnologySANS — Studies of Artificial Neural SystemsStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Karolinska InstitutetNobel Institute for NeurophysiologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations