Advertisement

Microbiological quality of seafoods: marine toxins

  • M.M. Wekell
  • J.M. Hungerford

Abstract

In seafoods as with terrestrial based foods, naturally occurring toxins can be present. The main toxins of concern in seafoods to be discussed here are those causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and ciguatera poisoning. These toxins are produced by phytoplankton and in some cases possibly by bacteria. One seafood related intoxication, scombroid poisoning is not associated with phytoplankton but rather with spoilage and microbial decarboxylation of free histidine in the muscle tissue of certain species of fishes containing high levels of this amino acid.

Keywords

Okadaic Acid Domoic Acid Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Diamine Oxidase Microbiological Quality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmed, F.E. (1991)Seafood Safety.Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Alvito, P., Sousa, I., Franca, S. and Sampayo, M.A., DeM. (1990) Diarrhetic shellfish toxins in bivalve molluscs along the coast of Portugal, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier, New York, pp. 443–8.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, D.M., Sullivan, J.J. and Reguera, B. (1989) Paralytic shellfish poisoning in northwest Spain: The toxicity of the dinoflagellateGymnodinium catenatum. Toxicon. 27665–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, D.M., Kulis, D.M., Sullivan, J.J. and Hall, S. (1990) Toxin composition variations in one isolate of the dinoflagellateAlexandrium-fundyense. Toxicon. 28 885–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagnis, R.A., Hurtel, J.M., Chanteau, S., Chungue, E., Inoue, A. and Yasumoto, T. (1979a) Le dinoflagellateGambierdiscus toxicusAdachi et Fukuyo agent causal probable de la ciguatera.C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D.,289671–4. (In Withers, 1988.)Google Scholar
  6. Begnis, R.A., Kuberski, T. and Langier, S. (1979b) Clinical Observations on 3009 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the South Pacific.Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28 1067–73.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, H.A., Kostriken, R. and Rapoport, A. (1978) The occurrence of saxitoxin and other toxins in various dinoflagellates.Toxicon. 16 595–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates, S.S., Bird, C.J., deFreitas, A.S.W., Foxall, R., Gilgan, M., Hanle, L.A., Johnson, G.A., McCulloch, A.W., Odense, P., Pocklington, R., Quilliam, M.A., Sim, P.G., Smith, J.C., Subba Rao, D.V., Todd, E.C.D., Walter, J.A. and Wright, J.C.L. (1989) The pennate diatom Nitzchia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from Eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada.Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 46 1203–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruno, M., Gucci, P.M.B., Pierdominici, E., Toppolo, A. and Volterra, L. (1990) Short Communications. Presence of saxitoxin in toxic extracts fromGonyaulax polyedra. Toxicon. 28 1113–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryan, F.L. (1988) Risks associated with vehicles of foodborne pathogens and toxins.J. Food Protec. 51 498–508.Google Scholar
  11. Calvert, G. (1990) The recognition and management of ciguatera fish poisoning, inCiguatera Seafood Toxins(ed. D.M. Miller), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 2–11.Google Scholar
  12. Catterall, W.A. (1985) The Voltage Sensitive Sodium Channel: A Receptor for Multiple Neurotoxins, inToxic Dinoflagellates(eds. D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden), Elsevier, New York, pp. 329–42.Google Scholar
  13. Desbiens, M., Coulombe, F., Gaudreault, J., Cembella, A.D. and Larocque, R. (1990) PSP toxicity of wild and cultured blue mussels induced by Alexandrium excavatum in Gaspe Bay (Canada): Implications for aquaculture, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds.E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier, New York, pp. 459–68.Google Scholar
  14. Dickey, R.W. and Bencsath, F.A. (1989) Intl. Chem. Cong. Pac. Basin Soc., Honolulu, HI, Dec. 17–22, Abst. 0630.Google Scholar
  15. Dickey, R.W. and Bencsath, F.A. (1990) A Comparison of Methods for the HPLC Fluorometric Analysis of Okadaic Acid, inThird Int. Cong. on Ciguatera Fish PoisoningPuerto Rico, April 30-May 4, 1990, Abst., pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  16. Fujiki, H.Suganuma, M., Suguri, H., Hoshizawa, S., Tanagi, K., Uda, N., Wakamatsu, K., Yamada, K., Murata, M., Yasumoto, T. and Suzimura, T. (1988) Diarrhetic shellfish toxin Dinophysistoxin is a potent tumour promoter on mouse skin.Jpn. J. Cancer Res.(Gann)791089–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grimmelt, B., Nijjar, M.S., Brown, J., Macnair, N., Wagner, S., Johnson, G.R. and Amend, J.F. (1990) Relationship between domoic acid levels in the blue mussel(Mytilus edulis)and toxicity in mice.Toxicol.,28501–8.Google Scholar
  18. Hamann, Y., Kinoshita, Y., and Yasumoto, T. (1985) Suckling mice assay for diarrhetic shellfish toxins, inToxic Dinoflagellates(eds.D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden), Elsevier, New York, pp. 383–8.Google Scholar
  19. Helrich, K. (1990) AOAC Official Methods of Analysis.Assoc. Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.Google Scholar
  20. Hokama, Y. (1988) Ciguatera fish poisoning.J. Clin. Lab Anal. 28 44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hokama, Y. (1990) Simplified solid-phase immunobead assay for detection of ciguatoxin and related polyethers.J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 4 213–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hungerford, J.M. and Arefyev, A.A. (1992) Flow-injection assay of enzyme inhibition in fish using immobilized diamine oxidase.Anal. Chim. Acta 261 351–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hungerford, J.M. and Wekell, M.M. (1992) Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins, inSeafood Poisoning(ed. A. Tu), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 415–73.Google Scholar
  24. Hungerford, J.M., and Wekell, M.M. (1993) Control measures, U.S.A., inToxic Algae in Food and Drinking Water(eds P. Krogh, and B. Hald), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 117–28.Google Scholar
  25. Hungerford, M.M., Walker, K.D., Wekell, M.M., LaRose, J.E., and Thorm, H.R. (1990) Selective Determination of Histamine by Flow Injection Analysis.Anal. Chem. 62 1971–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iverson, F., Truelove, J., Nera, E., Tryphonas, L., Campbell, J. and Lok, E. (1989) Domoic acid poisoning and mussel-associated intoxication: Preliminary investigations into the response of mice and rats to toxic mussel extract.Fd. Chem. Toxic. 27 377–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kat, M. (1983) Daarrhetic mussel poisoning in the Netherlands related to the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata.Ant. van Leeuwenhoek. 49 417–27.Google Scholar
  28. Kat, M. (1985) Dinophysis acuminata blooms, the distinct cause of Dutch mussel poisoning, inToxic Dinoflagellates(eds. D.M. Anderson, A. White and D. Baden), Elsevier, New York, pp. 73–7.Google Scholar
  29. Kodama, N. (1990) Possible links between bacteria and toxin production in algal blooms, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), pp. 52–61.Google Scholar
  30. Kodama, A.M. and Hokama, Y. (1989) Variations in symptomatology of ciguatera poisoning.Toxicon. 27 593–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lawrence, J.F., Charbonneau, C.F., Menard, C., Quilliam, M.A. and Sim, P.G. (1989) Liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in shellfish products using the paralytic shellfish poison extraction procedure of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.J. Chromatog. 462 349–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lawrence, J.F., Charbonneau, C.F. and Menard, C. (1991) Collaboration study of the liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in mussels using the paralytic shellfish poison extraction procedure of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.JAOAC74968–72.Google Scholar
  33. Lee, J.S., Yanagi, T., Kanna, R. and Yasumoto, T. (1987) Fluorometric determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins by high performance liquid chromatography.Agrie. Biol. Chem. 51 877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, J.S., Murata, M. and Yasumoto, T. (1988a) Analytical methods for determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins, inMycotoxins and Phycotoxins ‘88(eds.S. Natori, K. Hashimoto and Y. Ueno), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 327–34.Google Scholar
  35. Lee, J.S., Tangen, K., Dahl, E., Hovgaard, P. and Yasumoto, T. (1988b) Diarrhctic shellfish toxins in Norwegian mussels.Nippon Suisun Gakkaishi. 544. 1953–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, J.S., Igarashi, T., Fraga, S., Dahl, E., Hovgaard, P. and Yasumoto, T. (1989) Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species.J. Appl. Phycol. 1.147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Legrand, A.M., Fukui, M. and Yasumoto, T. (1989a) Characterization of ciguatoxins at different stages of the food chain.Intl. Chem. Cong. Pac. Basin Soc.Honolulu, HI, Dec. 17–22, 1989, Abst. 0626.Google Scholar
  38. Legrand, A.M., Litaudon, M., Genthon, J.N., Bagnis, R. and Yasumoto, T. (1989b) Isolation and some properties of ciguatoxin.J. Appl. Phycol. 1 183–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Legrand, A.M., Cruchet, P., Bagnis, R., Murata, M., Ishibashi, Y. and Yasumoto, T. (1990) Chromatographic and spectral evidence for the presence of multiple ciguatera toxins, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(ed. E. Graneli), pp. 374–8.Google Scholar
  40. Liston, J. (1990) Microbial Hazards of Seafood Consumption.Food Technol. 44 (12), 56–62.Google Scholar
  41. Meitz, J. and Karmas, E. (1977)J. Food Science 42 155–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, D.M. (ed.) (1990)Ciguatera Seafood ToxinsCRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 176 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Murata, M., Legrand, A., Ishibashi, Y. and Yasumoto, T. (1989a) Structures of ciguatoxin and its congener.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111 8929–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Murata, M., Legrand, A.M. and Yasumoto, T. (1989b) A probable partial structure of ciguatoxin isolated from the moray cclGymnothorax javanicus. Tet. Lett. 30 3793–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Murata, M., Legrand, A.M., Ishibashi, Y., Fukui, M. and Yasumoto, T. (1990) Structures and configurations of ciguatoxin from the moral eelGymnothorax javanicusand its likely precursor from the dinoflagellateGambierdiscus toxicus. J. Am. Chem. Soc.,1124380–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nevert, H. (1975) New approach to the separation and identification of some methylated histamine derivatives by gas chromatography.J. Chromatogr. 106 218–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ogata, T., Kodama, M., Komaru, K., Sakamoto, S., Sato, S. and Simidu, S. (1990) Production of paralytic shellfish toxins by bacteria isolated from toxic dinoflagellates, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Elder and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier, New York, pp. 311–15.Google Scholar
  48. Oshima, Y., Sugino, K., Itakura, H., Hirota, M. and Yasumoto, T. (1990) Comparative studies on paralytic shellfish profile of dinoflagellates and bivalves, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier, New York, pp. 391–6.Google Scholar
  49. Perl, Trish M., Bedard, M.S.M., Kosatsky, T., Hockin, J.C., Todd, E.C.D. and Remis, R.S. (1990) An outbreak of toxic encephalopathy caused by eating mussels contaminated with domoic acid. InThe New England J. Med.322, 1775–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pleasance, S., Sie, M., LeBlanc, Y. and Quilliam, M.A. (1990) Analysis of Domoic Acid and Related Compounds by Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as n-trifluoroacetyl-O-silyl Derivatives.Biomed. Env. Mass Spec. 19 420–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pocklington, R.. Milley, J.E., Bates, S.S., Bird, C.J., DeFreitas, A.S.W. and Quilliam, M.A. (1990) Trace determination of domoic acid in seawater and phytoplankton by high-performance liquid chromatography of the fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC) derivative.Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem.,38351–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pozo, R.G. and Saitua, E.S. (1988) Determination of histamine in fish and derivative products by HPLC with tluorometric detection.Alimentaria(Madrid) 25, 27–9.Google Scholar
  53. Prakash, A. (1967) Growth and toxicity of a marine dinoflagellateGonyaulax tamarensis. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. 241589–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Proctor, N.H., Chan, S.L. and Trevor, A.J. (1975) Production of saxitoxin by cultures ofGonyaulax catanella. Toxicon. 13 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Quilliam, M.A. and Wright, J.L.C. (1989) The amnesiac shellfish poisoning mystery.Anal. Chem. 61 1053A–9A.Google Scholar
  56. Quilliam, M.A., Sim, P.G., McCulloch, A.W. and McInnes, A.G. (1989) High performance liquid chromatography of domoic acid, a marine neurotoxin.J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 36. 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ronnbcrg, A.L., Hansson, C. and Hakcnson, R. (1984) Sensitive detection of histamine using the OPA reaction.Anal. Biochem. 139 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sampayo, M.A., Alvito, P., Franca, S. and Spusa, l.(1990) Dinophysis spp. toxicity and relation to accompanying species, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Graneli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier. New York, pp. 215–20.Google Scholar
  59. Schantz, E.J., lynch, J.M., Vayada, G., Masumoto, K. and Rapoport, H. (1966) The purification and characterization of the poison produced byGonyaulax catenellain axenic culture.Biochemistry,51191–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shimizu, Y. (1982) Recent progress in marine toxin research.Pure Appl. Chem. 54 1973–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Staruszkiewicz, W.F., Waldron, E.M. and Bonc, J.F. (1977) J.Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 60 (5), 1125–30.Google Scholar
  62. Stone, R.. (1991) Single-Celled Killer in Monterey Bay.Science22, 1113.Google Scholar
  63. Stratton, J.E. and Taylor, S.L. (1991) Scombroid Poisoning, inMicrobiology of Marine Products(eds.D.R. Ward and C.R. Hackney), Avi: Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 351.Google Scholar
  64. Suganuma, M., Fujiki, H., Suguri, H.. Yoshizawa, S., Hirota, M., Nakayasu, M., Ojuuka, M., Wakamatsu, K., Yamado, K. and Sugimura, T. (1988) Okadaic acid. An additional nonphorbol-12 tetradecanoaatc-13-acetate type tumor promotor.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 851768–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sullivan, J.J. and Wekell, M.M. (1987) The application of high performance liquid chromatography in a paralytic shellfish poisoning monitoring program, inSeafood Quality Determination(eds. D.E. Kramer and J. Liston) Elsevier, New York, pp. 357–71.Google Scholar
  66. Taylor, F.J.R. (1985) The taxomony and relationships of red tide flagellates, inToxic Dinoflagellates(eds. D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and E.G. Baden), Elsevier, New York, pp. 11–26.Google Scholar
  67. Taylor S.L. (1986) Histamine Food Poisoning: Toxicology and Clinical Aspects.CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 17 91–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Taylor, S.L. and Bush, R.K. (1988) Allergy by Ingestion of Seafoods, inMarine Toxins and Venoms(cd. A.T. Tu), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 149–83.Google Scholar
  69. Teitelbaum, J.S., Zatorre, R.I., Carpenter, S., Gendron, D., Evans, A.C., Gjedde, A. and Cashman, N.R. (1990) Neurologic sequelae of domoic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated mussels.N. Engl. J. Med. 322 1781–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Terao, K., Ito, E., Yanagi, T. and Yasumoto, T. (1986) Histopathological studies on experimental marine toxin poisoning. I. Ultrastructural changes in the small intestine and liver of suckling mice induced by dinophysistoxin-1 and pectenotoxin-1.Toxicon. 24 1141–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Terao, K., Ito, E., Orada, M., Murata, M. and Yasumoto, T. (1990) Histopathological studies on experimental marine toxin poisoning. 5. The effects in mice of yessotoxin isolated from pactinopectin-yessoensis and of a sulfated derivative.Toxicon 281095–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tryphonas, L., Truelove, J. and Iverson, F. (1990) Acute parenteral neurotixicity of domoic acid inCynomolgusmonkeysMacaca fascicularis. Toxicol. Pathol.,18297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Uda, T., Itoh, Y., Nishimuri, M., Usagawa, T. and Yasumoto, T. (1988) Enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibody specific for diarrhetic shellfish poisons, inMycotoxins and Phycotoxins(eds. S. Natori, K. Hashimoto and Y. Ueno), Elsevier, New York, pp. 335–42.Google Scholar
  74. Underdal, B., Yndestad, M. and Aune, T. (1985) DSP intoxication in Norway and Sweden, Autumn 1984-Spring 1985, inToxic Dinoflagellates(eds. D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden), Elsevier, New York, pp. 489–94.Google Scholar
  75. Usagawa, T., Nishimuri, M., Itoh, Y., Uda, T. and Yasumoto, T. (1989) Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against okadaic acid prepared from the sponge Halichondria okadai.Toxicon. 271323–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walters, M. (1984) Post-column HPLC determination of histamine in tuna.JAOAC 67 Google Scholar
  77. Weissbach, H., Lovenberg, W. and Udenfiend, S. (1961) Fluorimetric analysis of histamine.Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 50177–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Withers, N.W. (1988) Ciguatera fish toxins and poisoning, inHandbook of Natural Toxins Volume 3: Marine Toxins and Venoms(ed. A.T. Tu), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 31–61.Google Scholar
  79. Work, T.M., Beale, A.M., Fritz, L., Quilliam, M.A., Sillber, M., Buck, K. and Wright, J.L.C. (1991) Domoic Acid Intoxication of Brown PelicansPelecanus occidentalesin California. Paper presented at Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Newport, Rhode Island, Oct. 28-Nov. 1, 1991.Google Scholar
  80. Yasumoto, T. (1990) Marine microorganisms toxins -a review, inToxic Marine Phytoplankton(eds. E. Grandi, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson), Elsevier, New York, pp. 3–8.Google Scholar
  81. Yasumoto, T. and Murata, M. (1990) Polyether toxins involved in seafood poisoning, inMarine Toxins Origin Structure and Molecular Pharmacology. ACS Symposium Series 418, (eds. S. Hall and G. Strichartz), Washington DC, pp. 120–32.Google Scholar
  82. Yasumoto, T., Nakajima, I., Bagnis, R. and Adachi, R. (1977) Finding of a dinoflagellate as a likely culprit of ciguatera.Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 431021–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yasumoto, T., Oshima, Y. and Yamaguchi, M. (1978) Occurrence of a new type of shellfish poisoning in the Tohoku District.Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish.,441249–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yasumoto, T., Oshima, Y. and Yamaguchi, M. (1979) Occurrence of new type of toxic shellfish in Japan and chemical properties of toxin, inToxic Dinoflagellate Blooms(eds. D.T. Taylor and H.H. Seeliger), Elsevier, New York, pp. 395–8.Google Scholar
  85. Yasumoto, T., Oshima, Y., Sugawara, W., Fuguyo, Y., Oguri, H., igarashi, T. and Fujita, N. (1980) Identification ofDinophysis fortüas the causative organism of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish.,461405–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.M. Wekell
  • J.M. Hungerford

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations