Advertisement

Cereal flavours

  • C. Eriksson

Abstract

Flavours in raw cereals originate from the general metabolism of the grain. Cereal products obtain their flavour enzymatically, mainly in treatments like dough-kneading and fermentation, and nonenzymically, in processing for instance by different types of heat treatment. The principal flavour-formation routes seem to be autoxidation of lipids and amino-carbonyl reactions. Special attention has been paid to the formation of alkyl-pyrazines in extrusion and roasting processes. The possible causes of less flavour formation in microwave heating of cereal products is discussed. Off-flavour in cereal and cereal products is caused by advanced lipid oxidation and growth of microorganisms on the grain.

Keywords

Volatile Compound Maillard Reaction Flavour Compound Cereal Product Thermal Generation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Frankel, E.N., Autoxidation of polyunsaturated lipids, in New Aspects of Dietary Lipids. Benefits, Hazards, and Use, Proceedings of the IUFOST Symposium, September 17–20, 1989, Göteborg, Sweden, 1990, pp. 103–122.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haydanek, M.G., Jr. and McGorrin, R.J., Oat flavor chemistry: principles and prospects, in Oats: Chemistry and Technology, (ed. F.H. Webster), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, 1986, pp. 335–368.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eriksson, C. (ed.), Maillard Reactions in Food. Chemical, Physical and Technological Aspects. Prog. Fd. Nutr. Sci., 1981, 5, 1–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Waller, G.R. and Feather, M.S. (eds), The Maillard Reaction in Food and Nutrition, ACS Symposium Series No. 215, Washington D.C., 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujimaki, M., Namiki, M. and Kato, H. (eds), Amino-Carbonyl Reactions in Food and Biological Systems. Developments in Food Science 13, Elsevier, Tokyo, 1986.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Finot, P.A., Aeschbacher, H.U., Hurrell, R.F. and Liardon, R. (eds), The Maillard Reaction in Food Processing. Human Nutrition and Physiology, Birkhäuser, Basel, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parliment, T.H., McGorrin, R.J. and Ho, C-T. (eds), Thermal Generation of Aromas, ACS Symposium Series No. 409, Washington DC, 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schieberle, P. and Grosch, W., Identifizierung von Aromastoffen aus der Kruste von Roggenbrot. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 1983, 177, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fors, S.M. and Eriksson, C.E., Pyrazines in extruded malt. J. Sci. Food Agric., 1986, 37, 991–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fors, S.M. and Schlich, P., Flavor composition of oil obtained from crude and roasted oats, in Thermal Generation of Aromas, (eds T.H. Parliment, R.J. McGorrin, and C-T. Ho), ACS Symposium Series No 409, Washington DC, 1989, pp. 121–131.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stöllman, U., Flavour changes in white bread during storage, in The Shelf Life of Foods and Beverages, (ed. G. Charalambous), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986, pp. 293–301.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fors, S.M., Alkylpyrazines, flavour compounds in food. Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1987.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steinke, J.A., Frick, C.M., Gallagher, J.A. and Strassburger, K.J., Influence of microwave heating on flavor, in Thermal Generation of Aromas, (eds T.H. Parliment, R.J. McGorrin and C-T. Ho), ACS Symposium Series No 409, Washington DC, 1989, pp. 519–525.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shaath, N.A. and Azzo, N.R., Design of flavours for the microwave oven. Delta T theory, in Thermal Generation of Aromas, (eds. T.H. Parliment, R.J. McGorrin and C-T. Ho), ACS Symposium Series No 409, Washington DC, 1989, pp. 512–518.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buttery, R.G., Xu, C. and Ling, L.C., Volatile components of wheat leaves and stems: possible insect attractants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1985, 33, 115–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bullard, R.W. and Holguin, G., Volatile components of unprocessed rice (Oryza sativa L.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1917, 25, 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maga, J.A., Cereal volatiles, a review. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1978, 26, 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seltman, A., Untersuchungen über flüchtige Komponenten von Weizen und Weizenmehlen. Thesis, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich, 1979.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaminski, E. and Wasowicz, E., Chemical indices of microbial activity in stored grain, in Wheat End-Use Properties. Proceedings of the ICC′89 Symposium, Lahti, Finland, 1989, pp. 47–58.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Börjesson, T., Stöllman, U., Adamek, P. and Kaspersson, A., Analysis of volatile compounds for detection of molds in stored cereals. Cereal Chem., 1989, 66, 300–304.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wasowicz, E., Kaminski, E., Kollmansberger, H., Nitz, S., Berger, R.G. and Drawert, F., Volatile components of sound and musty wheat grain. Chem. Microbiol. Technol. Lebensm., 1988, 11, 161–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Eriksson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations