Advertisement

Chemical sensors

  • E. Kress-Rogers

Abstract

In recent years, novel chemical sensors for the food industry have become a commercial reality. Ten years ago, the Leatherhead Food Research Association (LFRA) embarked on a study of novel sensors being developed for other sectors and their potential adaptation to applications in the food industry. Sensors development was underway particularly in the defence and clinical sectors, in industrial safety and environmental protection and also in the automotive industry. The technologies employed included microelectronics, optoelectronics and biotechnology. The LFRAs technology transfer study (Kress-Rogers, 1985) proposed the development of, for example, solid state pH sensors for on-line measurements in foods based on field effect transistor devices (ISFET), of direct insertion probes for the assessment of food freshness based on biosensors and of immunosensors for bacterial and fungal toxins in foods. At the time, these suggestions were regarded as futuristic by many in the food industry.

Keywords

Surface Plasmon Resonance Chemical Sensor Sensor Array Field Effect Transistor Glass Frit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold, M.A. (1990) Fiber-optic biosensors. J. Biotechnol., 15, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, M.A. and Meyerhoff, M.E. (1988) Recent advances in the development and analytical applications of biosensing probes. CRC Crit. Rev. Analyt. Chem., 20,149–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badley R.A., Drake, R.A.L., Shanks, I.A., Smith, A.M. and Stephenson, P.R. (1987) Optical biosensor for immunoassays: the fluorescence capillary-fill device. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B316,143–160. (Presented by I.A. Shanks, 1986).Google Scholar
  4. Ballantine, D.S. Jr and Wohltjen, H. (1989) Surface acoustic wave devices for chemical analysis, Analyt. Chem., 61, 704A–715A.Google Scholar
  5. Bergveld, P. (1970) Development of an ion-sensitive solid-state device for neurophysiological measurements, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-17, 70–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergveld, P. (1988) Development and application of chemical sensors in liquids. In Sensors and Sensory Systems for Advanced Robots, NATO ASI Series, Vol. F43, (Ed. Dario P.) Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  7. Bradley, J. and Schmid, R.D. (1991) Optimisation of a biosensor for in situ fermentation monitoring of glucose concentration. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 6, 669–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brand, U., Reinhardt, B., Ruether, F., Scheper, T. and Schuegerl, K. (1991) Bio-field-effect transistors for process control in biotechnology. Sensors and Actuators, B4, 315–318.Google Scholar
  9. Caras, S. and Janata, J. (1980) Field effect transistor sensitive to penicillin. Analyt. Chem., 52,1935–1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cass, A.E.G., Davis, G., Francis, G.D., Hill, H.A.O., Aston, W.J., Higgins, I.J., Plotkin, E.V., Scott, L.D.L. and Turner, A.P.F. (1984) Ferrocene-mediated enzyme electrode for amperometric determination of glucose. Analyt. Chem. 56, 671–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke, D.J., Blake-Coleman, B.C. and Calder, M.R. (1987) Principles and potential of piezoelectric transducers and acoustical techniques. In Biosensors, Fundamentals and Applications (eds Turner, A.P.F., Karube, I, and Wilson, G.S). Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 551–571.Google Scholar
  12. Cleland, N. Hoernsten, E.G., Elwing, H., Enfors, S. and Lundstroem, I. (1984) Measurement of hydrogen evolution by oxygen-limited Escherichia coli by means of a hydrogen sensitive Pd-MOS sensor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20, 268–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daniels, P.B., Deacon, J.K., Eddowes, M.J. and Pedley, D.G. (1988) Surface plasmon resonance applied to immunosensing. Sensors and Actuators, 15,11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Danielsson, B. (1990) Calorimetric biosensors. J. Biotechnol., 15,187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Danielsson, B. and Winquist, F. (1989) Biosensors based on semiconductor gas sensors. In Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications(eds Turner, A.P.F., Karube, I. and Wilson, G.). Oxford University Press, pp. 531–548.Google Scholar
  16. D’Amico, A. and Verona, E. (1989) SAW sensors. Sensors and Actuators, 17, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Costa, E., Dillon, M., Hodgson, F.J.A. and Quantick, P.C. (1988) Rapid prediction of banana fruit maturation using a glucose biosensor. Analyst, 113, 225–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Den Reijer, M. (1990) Goede pH-meters verkriegbaar. Vleesdistributie en vleestechnologie, 25, 34–39.Google Scholar
  19. Eikelenboom, G. (1990a) Toepassingen van de pH-meting bij vers vlees. Vleesdistrib. vleestechnol., 25,19–23.Google Scholar
  20. Eikelenboom, G. (1990b) Het meten van de pH van vlees. Vleesdistrib. vleestechnol, 25, 24–33.Google Scholar
  21. Gardner, J.W. (1991) Detection of vapours and odours from a multisensor array using pattern recognition; part I: principal component and cluster analysis. Sensors and Actuators, B4,109–115.Google Scholar
  22. Gill, C.O. (1976) Substrate limitation of bacterial growth at meat surfaces. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 41, 401–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gotoh, M., Tamiya, E., Karube, I. and Kagawa, Y. (1986) A microsensor for adenosine-5’-triphosphate (using a) pH-sensitive field effect transistor. Analyt. Chim. Acta, 187, 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guilbault, G.G. and Jordan, J.M. (1988) Analytical uses of piezoelectric crystals: a review. CRC Crit. Rev. Analyt. Chem., 19,1–28.Google Scholar
  25. Karube, I. and Tamiya, E. (1989) Microbiosensors for clinical and process analysis. In Bioproducts and Bioprocesses (eds Fiechter, A., Okada, H. and Tanner, R.D.) Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karube, I., Sode, K. and Tamiya, E. (1990) Microbiosensors. J. Biotechnol. 15, 267–282.Google Scholar
  27. Kimura, J. and Kuriyama, T. (1990) FET biosensors, J. Biotechnol., 15, 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klein, M. (1991) Calcium-sensitive field effect transistor with inorganic layer. Sensors and Actuators, B4, 141–144.Google Scholar
  29. Kohl, D. (1989) Catalytic reactions and electronic processes relevant in gas sensing: an extended abstract. Sensors and Actuators, 17, 309–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koudelka, M., Gernet, S. and De Rooij, N.F. (1989) Planar amperometric enzyme-based glucose microelectrode. Sensors and Actuators, 18,157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kress-Rogers, E. (1985) Technology Transfer, Part II. The New Generation of Sensors. LFRA Scientific and Technical Surveys, No. 150.Google Scholar
  32. Kress-Rogers, E. (1986) Sensors for measurement of food properties and for quality control. COST 91 bis Sub-group Workshop. 25 November 1986, Chipping Campden. (A summary can be found on pp. 11–14 of Berichte der Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, BFE-R-87–01 Sensors and Measurement of Product Properties—Instrumentation and Process Control, (ed. Paulus, K.O.) February 87.).Google Scholar
  33. Kress-Rogers, E. (1987) Sensors and their applications to meat technology, In Proc. Trends Modern Meat Technology II, November 1987, (eds Krol, B., van Roon, P.S. and Houben J.H.). Den Holder, Netherlands (Pudoc, Wageningen, 1988), pp. 33–39.Google Scholar
  34. Kress-Rogers, E. (1978/1988) Viscosity sensor for assessment of oil quality during use. Symposium ‘Frying’ (25 Feb 1988 at the LFRA), LFRA Symposium Proceedings No. 35, pp. 54–60.Google Scholar
  35. Kress-Rogers, E. (1991) Solid-state pH sensors for food applications, Trends in Food Science & Technology. Volume 2, pp. 320–324 (December 1991). (Note typesetting errors: drift should read 0.05 pH units per 24 hours on p. 323, biosensors should read sensors in Table 1.).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kress-Rogers, E. (1993a) Chemical sensors, biosensors and immunosensors. In Instrumentation and Sensors for the Food Industry, (ed. Kress-Rogers, E.). Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 581–689. Due to appear March 1993. ISBN 0 7506 11537.Google Scholar
  37. Kress-Rogers, E. (1993b) The marker concept: frying oil monitor and meat freshness sensor. In Instrumentation and Sensors for the Food Industry (ed. Kress-Rogers, E.). Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 523–580. Due to appear February 1993. ISBN 0 7506 11537.Google Scholar
  38. Kress-Rogers, E. (1993c) Instrumentation for food quality assurance, In Instrumentation and Sensors for the Food Industry (ed. Kress-Rogers, E.). Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 1–36. Due to appear February 1993. ISBN 0 7506 11537.Google Scholar
  39. Kress-Rogers, E. and D’Costa, E.J. (1986) Biosensors for the food industry. Analyt. Proc. 23,149–151.Google Scholar
  40. Kress-Rogers, E. and Turner, A.P.F. (1986) Immunosensors based on acoustic, optical and bioelectrochemical devices and techniques. Leatherhead Food RA Technical Notes No 49. (See also Immunoassays for Veterinary and Food Analysis (eds Morris, B.A., Clifford, M.N. and Jackman, R.) (1988), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers (Proc. Symp. Adv. Immuno Assays for Veterinary and Food Analysis, University of Surrey, July 1986.).Google Scholar
  41. Kress-Rogers, E., Sollars, J.E., D’Costa, E.J., Wood, J.M. and Turner, A.P.F. (1988) Meat freshness using a biosensor array. Proc. 34th Internat. Congr. Meat Sei. Technol., (Brisbane Aug/Sept 1988), pp. 508–510.Google Scholar
  42. Kress-Rogers, E., Gillatt, P.N. and Rossell, J.B. (1990) Development and evaluation of a novel sensor for the in situ assessment of frying oil quality. Food Control, 1,163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kress-Rogers, E., (1987/1988) Viscosity sensor for assessment of oil quality during use. Symposium ‘Frying’ (25 Feb 1988 at the LFRA), LFRA Symposium Proceedings No. 35, pp. 54–60.Google Scholar
  44. Kress-Rogers, E. D’Costa, E.J., Sollars, J.E., Gibbs, P.A. and Turner, A.P.F. (1992) In situ measurement of meat freshness with a biosensor array. In Proc. The Nestlé Meeting on Biosensors, Opportunities for the Food Industry(Lausanne, May 1992), pp. 41–46.Google Scholar
  45. Leiner, M.J.P. and Wolfbeis, O.S. (1991) Fiber optic pH sensors. In Fibre Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Volume I, (ed. Wolfbeis, O.S.). CRC Press, Boston, Chapter 8, pp. 359–384.Google Scholar
  46. Liedberg, B. Nylander, C. and Lundstrom, I. (1983) Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing. Sensors and Actuators, 4, 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mascini, M. (ed.) (1989) Strategies for in-vivo sensing. Abstr. 2nd Workshop Biomed. Eng. Action Europ. Community on Chemical Sensors for in-vivo Monitoring, Florence, 12–15 November.Google Scholar
  48. McCallum, J.J. (1989) Piezoelectric devices for mass and chemical measurements: an update. Analyst, 114,1173–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muehlbauer, M.J. Guilbeau, E.J. and Towe, B.C. (1990) Applications and stability of a thermoelectric enzyme sensor. Sensors and Actuators, B2, 223–232.Google Scholar
  50. Muramatsu, H., Tamiya, E. and Karube, I. (1989) Detection of odorants using lipid coated piezoelectric crystal resonators. Analyt. Chim. Acta, 225, 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nylander, C., Liedberg, B. and Lind, T. (1982) Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance. Sensors and Actuators, 3, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Othuis, W., Van der Schoot, B.H., Chavez, F. and Bergveld, P. (1989) A dipstick sensor for coulometric acid-base titrations. Sensors and Actuators, 17, 279–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Persaud, K.C. and Dodd, G.H. (1982) Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose. Nature, London, 299, 352–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Persaud, K.C. and Pelosi, P. (1992) Sensor arrays using conducting polymers for an artificial nose. In Electronic Noses, NATO ASISeries (ed. Gardner, P.G., Dodd, G.H., Bartlett, J.) Kluwer Press (Proc. of NATO Workshop on Electronic Noses, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 1991), in press.Google Scholar
  55. Sibbald, A., Whalley, P.D. and Covington, A.K. (1984) A miniature flow-through cell with a four-function CHEMFET integrated circuit for simultaneous measurements of potassium, hydrogen, calcium and sodium ions. Analyt. Chim. Acta, 159, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sundgren, H., Lundstroem, I., Winquist, F., Lukkari, I., Carlsson, R. and Wold, S. (1990). Evaluation of a multiple gas mixture with a simple MOSFET gas sensor array and pattern recognition. Sensors and Actuators, B2,115–123.Google Scholar
  57. Turner, A.P.F., Hendry, S.P. and Cardosi, M.F. (1987) Tetrathiafulvalene: a new mediator for amperometric biosensors. In The World Biotechnology Report on Biosensors, Instrumentation and Processing I. Online Publications, Pinner, UK, pp. 125–137.Google Scholar
  58. Updike, S.J. and Hicks, G.P. (1967) The enzyme electrode. Nature, 214, 986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vadgama, P. (1990) Biosensors: adaptation for practical use. Sensors and Actuators, Bl, 1–7.Google Scholar
  60. Van den Berg, A., Grisel, A., and Verney-Norberg, E. (1991) An ISFET-based calcium sensor using a photopolymerised polysiloxane membrane. Sensors and Actuators, B4, 235–238.Google Scholar
  61. Van der Schoot, B.H. and Bergveld, P. (1985) An ISFET-based microlitre titrator: integration of a chemical sensor-actuator system. Sensors and Actuators, 8,11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Walt, D.R., Barnard, S.M. and Luo, S. (1991) Optical immunosensors using controlled release polymers, Symp. Am. Chem. Soc. Division PMSE (Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering), Session on ‘Biosensors: novel applications of polymeric materials’, Atlanta, April 1991.Google Scholar
  63. Watanabe, E., Endo, H., Hayashi, T. and Toyama, K. (1986) Simultaneous determination of hypoxanthine and inosine with an enzyme sensor. Biosensors, 2, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wolfbeis, O.S. (ed.) (1991) Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Volumes. I and II. CRC Press, Boston, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Kress-Rogers

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations