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Butter and Allied Products

  • R. S. Jebson

Summary

Churning of cream to butter has been practised for a considerable period of time and current procedures from cream handling to packing and storage are described. Pretreatment of cream is a key operation involving pasteurization and deodorization and the procedure can significantly affect the quality of the finished product. All churning techniques have the objective of partly destabilizing the milk globule interface, so releasing fat which forms the continuous phase of the butter. The introduction of air bubbles assists emulsion destabilization and much modern equipment involves continuous techniques based on the Fritz process. Alternative procedures include the blending of anhydrous milkfat with serum in scraped surface coolers.

Variables in the process include both machine variables (unit configurations and operating conditions), mode of addition of minor ingredients, and cream variables (temperature regimes, holding times and vacreation intensity, etc.). Various monitoring techniques are available for moisture measurement. Methods for packing, transport and handling butter are described and changes which can take place in that product after packing are highlighted.

Problems with finished butter can include off-flavour developments, particularly those caused by the feed of the cows, processing, and oxidative and/or microbiological spoilage. Other product defects may embrace colour body and texture problems. In the production of lactic butter a number of problems can occur if souring of cream is used and the Nizo process has been developed to overcome these. It is claimed that this procedure yields lactic butter of superior keeping quality than that of standard sweet cream salted butter.

Various techniques for softening butter are available including controlled pretreatment of cream and the use of fractionated milkfat.

Keywords

Orifice Plate Plate Heat Exchanger Dairy Research Ally Product Fishy Flavour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Jebson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food TechnologyMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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