The major alkaloids of coffee are caffeine and trigonelline. Caffeine occurs at up to around 2% in the green bean where it is strongly associated with chi orogenic acids. After roasting, which destroys most of the latter, the alkaloid is readily extractable with hot water. This leads to a caffeine concentration of around 0.05% in an average cup of coffee. Trigonelline is present to the extent of about 1 % in green beans but is partly decomposed during roasting.
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