Foods are perishable by nature. Numerous changes take place in foods during processing and storage. It is well known that conditions used to process and store foods may adversely influence the quality attributes in foods. Upon storage for a certain period, one or more quality attributes of a food may reach an undesirable state. At that instant, the food is considered unsuitable for consumption and it is said to have reached the end of its shelf life. In this chapter, certain major modes of food deterioration will be examined. These modes of deterioration will be expressed mathematically as rate equations. Reaction kinetics and various models that are used in practice to express quality changes in foods will be discussed. At the end of the chapter, a brief discussion of sensors that indicate time and temperature exposures of foods and their use in monitoring shelf life of foods will be presented.
- Shelf Life
- Quality Attribute
- Food Quality
- Quality Change
- Scientific Principle
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Arabshahi, A. and Lund, D.B. (1985) Considerations in calculating kinetic parameters from experimental data. J. Food Process Engineering, 7, 239–51.
Benson, S.W. (1960) Foundation of Chemical Kinetics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Blixt, K.G. (1983) The I-point, TTM — a versatile biochemical time-temperature integrator. IIR Commission C2 Preprints, Proc. 16th Int. Cong. Refrig., Intl. Inst. Refrig., Paris, p. 629.
Blixt, K.G. and Tiru, M. (1977) An enzymatic time/temperature device for monitoring the handling of perishable commodities. Dev. Biol. Std., 36, 237.
Blixt, K.G., Tornmarck, S.I.A., Juhlin, R., Salenstedt, K.R. and Tiru, M. (1977) Enzymatic substrate composition absorbed on a carrier. US Patent 4,043,871.
Byrne, C.H. (1976) Temperature indicators — the state of the art. Food Technol., 30(6), 66.
Campbell, L.A. (1986) Use of a time-temperature indicator in monitoring quality of refrigerated salads. M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, E. Lansing.
Chen, J.H. and Zall, R.R. (1987b) Packaged milk, cream and cottage cheese can be monitored for freshness using polymer indicator labels. Dairy Food Sanit., 7, 402.
Chen, J.H. and Zall, R.R. (1987a) Refrigerated orange juice can be monitored for freshness using a polymer indicator label. Dairy Food Sanit., 7, 280.
Chen, H.C., Singh, R.P. and Reid, D.R. (1989) Quality changes in hamburger meat during frozen storage. Int. J. Refrigeration,12, 88–94.
Cherng, Y.S. and Zall, R.R. (1989) Use of time temperature indicators to monitor fluid milk movement in commercial practice. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit., 9, 439.
Cohen, E. and Saguy, I. (1985) Statistical evaluation of Arrhenius model and its applicability in prediction of food quality losses. J. Food Proc. Preserv.,9, 273–90.
Coultate, T.P. (1989) Food, the Chemistry of its Components, Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
Dolan, K.D., Singh, R.P. and Wells, J.H. (1985) Evaluation of time-temperature related quality changes in ice cream during storage. J. Food Proc. Preserv,9, 253.
Farquhar, J.W. (1977) Time-temperature indicators in monitoring the distribution of frozen foods. J. Food Qual., 1(2), 119.
Fennema, O.R. (1985) Food Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Fields, S.C. and Prusik, T. (1986) Shelf life estimation of beverage and food products using bar coded time-temperature indicator labels, in The Shelf Life of Foods and Beverages (ed. G. Charalambous), Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, p. 23.
Fu, B., Taoukis, P.S. and Labuza, T.P. (1991) Predictive microbiology for monitoring spoilage of dairy products with time temperature indicators. J. Food Sci., 56 (5), 1209–15.
Fu, B., Taoukis, P.S. and Labuza, T.P. (1992) Theoretical design of a variable activation energy time-temperature integrator for prediction of food or drug shelf life. Drug. Dev. Ind. Pharm.,18(8), 829–50.
Grissius, R., Wells, J.H., Barrett, E. and Singh, R.P. (1987) Correlation of time-temperature indicator response with microbial growth in pasteurized milk. J. Food Proc. Preserv., 11, 309–24.
Haralampu, S.G., Saguy, I. and Karel, M. (1985) Estimation of Arrhenius parameters using three least squares methods. J. Food Proc. Preserv., 9, 129–43.
Hicks, E.W. (1944) Note on the estimation of the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations on reaction rates in stored foodstuffs and other materials. J. CSIRO,Australia, 17, 111–14.
International Institute of Refrigeration (1986) Recommendations for the Processing and Handling of Frozen Foods, 3rd edn, IIR, Paris.
Jul, M. (1984) The Quality of Frozen Foods, Academic Press, New York.
Kramer, A. and Farquhar, J. (1976) Testing of time-temperature indicating and defrost devices. Food Technol., 30(2), 50.
Kwolek, W.F. and Bookwalter, G.N. (1971) Predicting storage stability from time-temperature data. Food Technology, 25(10), 1025, 1026, 1028, 1029, 1031, 1037.
Labuza, T.P. (1971) Nutrient losses during drying and storage of dehydrated foods. Crit. Rev. Food Technol., 3, 355.
Labuza, T.P. (1979) A theoretical comparison of losses in food under fluctuating temperature sequences. J. food Science, 44(4), 1162–8.
Labuza, T.P. (1982) Shelf-Life Dating of Foods, Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, Connecticut.
Labuza, T.P. (1984) Application of chemical kinetics to deterioration of foods. J. Chem. Educ., 61, 348.
Lai, D. and Heldman, D.R. (1982) Analysis of kinetics of quality changes in frozen foods. J. Food Process Engineering, 6, 179–200.
Malcata, F.X. (1990) The effect of internal thermal gradients on the reliability of surface mounted full-history time-temperature indicators. J. Food Proc. Preserv., 14, 481.
Manske, W.J. (1976) Selected time interval indicating device. US Patent 3,954,011.
Manske, W.J. (1983) The application of controlled fluid migration to temperature limit and time temperature integrators. C2 Preprints 16 Intl. Cong. Refrig., Intl. Inst. of Refrig., Paris, p. 797.
Mistry, V.V. and Kosikowski, F.F. (1983) Use of time-temperature indicators as quality control devices for market milk. J. food Protect., 46(1), 52.
Olley, J. (1976) Temperature indicators, temperature integrators, temperature function integrators and the food spoilage chain. Aust. Natl. Comm. Joint Mtg. Comms. C2, D1, D2, D3 and El, Intl. Inst. Refrig., Paris, p. 1.
Patel, G.N. and Yang, N. (1983) Polydiacetylenes: an ideal system for teaching polymer science. J. Chem. Educ., 60(3), 181.
Patel, G.N. and Yee, K.C. (1980) Diacetylene time-temperature indicators. US Patent 4,228,126.
Patel, G.N., Preziosi, A.F. and Baughman, R.H. (1977) Time-temperature history indicators. US Patent 3,999,946.
Saguy, I. and Karel, M. (1980) Modeling of quality deterioration during food processing and storage. Food Technol., 34(2), 78–85.
SAS Institute Inc. (1982) SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, 1982 Edition, SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.
Schoen, H.M. and Byrne, C.H. (1972) Defrost indicators: many designs have been patented yet there is no ideal indicator. Food Technol., 26(10), 46–50.
Schubert, H. (1977) Criteria for application of T—T indicators to quality control of deep frozen products. Science et Technique du Froid IIF-IIR, 1, 407–23.
Schwimmer, S., Ingraham, L.L. and Hughes, H.M. (1955) Temperature tolerance in frozen food processing: Effective temperatures in thermal fluctuating systems. Ind. Eng. Chem., 47(6), 1149–51.
Shellhammer, T.H. and Singh, R.P. (1991) Monitoring chemical and microbial changes of cottage cheese using a full-history time-temperature indicator. J. Food Sci., 56(2) 402–5, 410.
Singh, R.P. (1976) Computer simulation of food quality during frozen food storage. Int. Inst. Refrig. Bull. Supp., 1, 197--204.
Singh, R.P. (1989) Computer-aided inventory management using time-temperature indicators, in Food Properties and Computer-Aided Engineering of Food Processing Systems (eds. R.P. Singh and A.G. Medina), Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands.
Singh, R.P., and Heldman, D.R. (1976) Simulation of liquid food quality during storage. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., 19(1), 178–84.
Singh, R.P. and Heldman, D.R. (1993) Introduction to Food Engineering, Academic Press, San Diego.
Singh, R.P. and Wells, J.H. (1985) Use of time-temperature indicators to monitor quality of frozen hamburger. Food Technol., 39(12), 42–50.
Singh, R.P. and Wells, J.H. (1987) Monitoring quality changes in stored frozen strawberries with time-temperature indicators. Int. J. Refrig., 10, 296–300.
Singh, R.P. and Wells, J.H. (1989) Time-temperature indicators in food inventory management, in 1989 Food & Beverage Technology International USA, pp. 195–8.
Singh, R.P., Heldman, D.R. and Kirk, J.R. (1975) Kinetic analysis of light-induced riboflavin loss in whole milk. J. Food Sei., 40, 164–7.
Singh, R.P., Heldman, D.R. and Kirk, J.R. (1976) Kinetics of quality degradation: ascorbic acid oxidation in infant formula during storage. J. Food Sci., 41, 304–8.
Singh, R.P., Wells, J.H., Dolan, K.D., Gonnet, E.J. and Munoz, A.M. (1984) Critical evaluation of time-temperature indicators for monitoring quality changes in stored subsistence. Report prepared for US Army Natick Research Development Center, Natick, Massachusetts. (Contact No. DAAK60–83-C-0100).
Singh, R.P., Barrett, E.L., Wells, J.H., Grisius, R.C. and Marum, W. (1986) Critical evaluation of time-temperature indicators for monitoring quality changes in perishable and semi-perishable foods. Report prepared for U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Center, Natick, MA. January (Contract No. DAAK60–84-C-0076).
Taoukis, P.S. (1989) Time-temperature indicators as shelf life monitors of food products. Ph.D. thesis. University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Taoukis, P.S. and Labuza, T.P. (1989a) Applicability of time-temperature indicators as food quality monitors under non-isothermal conditions. J. Food Sci., 54, 783.
Taoukis, P.S. and Labuza, T.P. (1989b) Reliability of time-temperature indicators as food quality monitors under non-isothermal conditions. J. Food Sci., 54, 789.
Taoukis, P.S., Reineccius, G.A. and Labuza, T.P. (1990) Application of time-temperature indicators to monitor quality of flavored products, in Flavors and Off Flavors ‘89 (ed. G. Charalambous), Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York, p. 385.
Taoukis, P.S., Labuza, T.P. and Francis, R.C. (1991) Time temperature indicators as food quality monitors. Food Packaging Technology,ASTM STP 1113, ASTM, Philadelphia, p. 51.
Taoukis, P.S., Fu, B. and Labuza, T.P. (1991) Time temperature indicators. Food Technology, 45(10), 70–82.
University of California (1983) BMDP Statistical Software. (ed. W.J. Dixon) University of California Press, Berkeley.
Van Arsdel, W.B., Coply, M.J. and Olson, R.L. (1969) Quality and Stability of Frozen Foods, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Wells, J.H. and Singh, R.P. (1988a) A kinetic approach to food quality prediction using full-history time-temperature indicators. J. Food Sci., 53(6), 1866–71, 1893.
Wells, J.H. and Singh, R.P. (1988b) Application of time-temperature indicators in monitoring changes in quality attributes of perishable and semiperishable foods. J. Food Sci., 53(1), 148–56.
Wells, J.H. and Singh, R.P. (1988c) Response characteristics of full-history time-temperature indicators for perishable food handling. J. Food Proc. Preserv.,12, 207–18.
Wells, J.H. and Singh, R.P. (1989) A quality based inventory issue for perishable foods. J. Food Proc. Preserv., 12, 271–92.
Wells, J.H. and Singh, R.P. (1992) The application of time-temperature indicator technology to food quality monitoring and perishable inventory management, in Mathematical Modelling of Food Processing Operations (ed. S. Thorne), Elsevier Applied Science, London.
Wells, J.H., Singh, R.P. and Noble, A.C. (1987) A graphical interpretation of time-temperature related quality changes in frozen foods. J. Food Sci., 52(2), 435–44.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1994 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Singh, R.P. (1994). Scientific principles of shelf life evaluation. In: Man, C.M.D., Jones, A.A. (eds) Shelf Life Evaluation of Foods. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-2095-5_1
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-5871-8
Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-2095-5
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive