Advertisement

Dietary Fiber

  • Aliza Stark
  • Zecharia Madar

Abstract

The first step in deciphering the function of dietary fiber is understanding that it is not a uniform substance. Dietary fiber is a mixture of many complex organic substances, each having unique physical and chemical properties. Although a single definition has yet to be agreed upon, dietary fiber is commonly defined as “plant polysaccharides and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes of man” (Trowell et al. 1976). Plant cell wall material containing cellulose, hemicellulose, pectic substances, and lignin are the major components of dietary fiber (Selvendran, Stevens, and Du Pont 1987). In addition, mucilages, gums, algal polysaccharides, and synthetic polysaccharides are also considered dietary fiber. Except for lignin, dietary fibers are carbohydrate in nature, and it has been suggested that the measurement of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) is more accurate than determination of “dietary fiber” (Englyst et al. 1987). On the other hand, it has been proposed that starch that is not digested in the small intestine and reaches the colon (resistantstarch) is chemically and physically similar to other nondigestable polysaccharides and should therefore be included in the definition of dietary fiber (Asp 1990).

Keywords

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Dietary Fiber Wheat Bran Glycemic Index Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alberts, D.S.; Einspahr, J.; Rees-McGee, S.; Ramanujam, P.; Buller, M.K.; Clark, L.; Ritenbaugh, C.; Atwood, J.; Pethigal, P.; Earnest, D.; Villar, H.; Phelps, J.; Lipkin, M.; Wargovich, M.; and Meyskens, F.L. 1990. Effects of dietary wheat bran fiber on rectal epithelial cell proliferation in patients with resection for colorectal cancers. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82: 1280–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J.W.; Story, L.; Sieling, B.; Chen, W.L.; Petro, M.S.; and Story, J. 1984. Hypocholesterolemic effects of oat-bran or bean intake for hypercholesterolemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40: 1146–1155.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.W.; Zettwoch, N.; Feldman, T.; Tietyen-Clark, J. Oeltgen, P.; and Bishop, C.W. 1988. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium hydrophillic mucilloid for hypercholesterolemic men. Arch. Intern. Med. 148: 292–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J.W.; Zeigler, J.A.; Deakins, D.A.; Floore, T.L.; Dillon, D.W.; Wood, C.L.; Oeltgen, P.R.; and Whitley, R.J. 1991. Metabolic effects of high carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 936–943.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J.W.; Riddell-Mason, S.; Gustafson, N.J.; Smith, S.F.; and Mackey, M. 1992. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyIlium-enriched cereal as an adjunct to a prudent diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56: 93–98.Google Scholar
  6. Anon. 1990. Energy values of complex carbohydrates. In Complex Carbohydrates in Foods: The Report of the British Nutrition Foundation’s Task Force, pp. 56–66. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Arjmandi, B.H.; Ahn, J.; Nathani, S.; and Reeves, R.D. 1992. Dietary soluble fiber and cholesterol affect serum cholesterol concentration, hepatic portal venous short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal sterol excretion in rats. J. Nutr. 122: 246–253.Google Scholar
  8. Asp, N.B. 1990. Delimitation problems in definition and analysis of dietary fiber. In New Developments in Dietary Fiber-Physiological, Physicochemical, and Analytical Aspects, I. Furda and C.J. Brine, eds., pp. 227–236. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  9. Asp, N.B., and Johansson, C.G. 1981. Techniques for measuring dietary fiber; principal aims of methods and a comparison of results obtained by different techniques. In The analysis of dietary fiber in food, W.P.T. James and O. Theander, eds., pp. 173–190. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Beattie, V.A.; Edwards, C.A.; Hosker, J.P.; Cullen, D.R.; Ward, J.D.; and Read, N.W. 1988. Does adding fibre to a low energy, high carbohydrate, low fat diet confer any benefit to the management of newly diagnosed overweight type II diabetics? Br. Med. J. 296: 1147–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borgia, M.; Sepe, N.; Brancato, V.; Costa, G.; Simone, P.; Borgia, R.; and Lugli, R. 1983. Treatment of chronic constipation by a bulk-forming laxative. J. Int. Med. Res. 11: 124–127.Google Scholar
  12. Brand, J.C.; Colagiuri, C.; Crossman, S.; Allen, A.; and Truswell, A.S. 1991. Low glycemic index carbohydrate foods improve glucose control in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Diabetes Care. 14: 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, N.J.; Worlding, J.; Rumsey, P.D.E.; and Read, N.W. 1988. The effect of guar gum on the distribution of radiolabeled meal in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Br. J. Nutr. 59: 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruce, W.R. 1987. Recent hypotheses for the origin of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 47: 4237–4242.Google Scholar
  15. Calvert, R.; Schneeman, B.O.; Satchithanandam, S.; Cassidy, M.M.; and Vahouney, G. 1985. Dietary fiber and intestinal adaptation: Effects on intestinal and pancreatic digestive enzyme activities. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 1249–1256.Google Scholar
  16. Cann, P. A.; Read, N.W.; and Holdsworth, C.D. 1984. What is the benefit of coarse wheat bran in patients with irritable bowel syndrome? Gut 24: 168–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, W.L.; Anderson, J.W.; and Jennings, D. 1984. Propionate may mediate the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain soluble plant fibers in cholesterol-fed rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 175: 215–218.Google Scholar
  18. Cummings, J.H. 1991. Production and metabolism of short-chain fatty acids in humans. In Short-Chain Fatty Acids: Metabolism and Clinical Importance, pp. 11–16. Report of the Tenth Ross Conference on Medical Research, 2–4 December 1990, at Sanibel Island, Florida.Google Scholar
  19. Cummings, J.H.; Southgate, D.A.T.; Branch, W.; Houston, H.; Jenkins, D.J.A.; and James, W.P.T. 1978. Colonic response to dietary fiber from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran and guar gum. Lancet 1: 5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Di Lorenzo, C.; Williams, C.M.; Hajnal, F.; and Venezuela, J.E. 1988. Pectin delays gastric emptying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Gastroenterology 95: 1211–1215.Google Scholar
  21. Dreher, M.L. 1987a. Dietary fiber methodology. In Handbook of Dietary Fiber-An Applied Approach, pp. 53–114. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Dreher, M.L. 1987b. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber as related to bowel function and food use. In Handbook of Dietary Fiber-An Applied Approach, pp. 137–182. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Dunaif, G., and Schneeman, B.O. 1981. The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 1034–1035.Google Scholar
  24. Dutta, S.K., and Hlasko, J. 1985. Dietary fiber in pancreatic disease: Effect of high fiber diet on fat malabsorption in pancreatic insufficiency and in vitro study of the interaction of dietary fiber with pancreatic enzymes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 517–525.Google Scholar
  25. Eastwood, M.A., and Morris, E.R. 1992. Physical properties of dietary fiber that influence physiological function: A model for polymers along the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 436–442.Google Scholar
  26. Eastwood, M.A.; Robertson, J.A.; Brydon, W.G.; and MacDonald, D. 1983. Measurement of water holding properties of fibre and their faecal bulking ability in man. Br. J. Nutr. 50: 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ebling, P.; Hannele, Y.J.; Aro, A.; Helve, E.; Sinisalo, M.; and Koivisto, V.A. 1988. Glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type I diabetes: the effect of guar gum. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48: 98–103.Google Scholar
  28. Ellis, P.R.; Burley, V.J.; Leeds, A.R.; and Peterson, D.B. 1988. A guar-enriched wholemeal bread reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet 1: 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Englyst, H.N.; Trowell, H.; Southgate, D.A.T.; and Cummings, J.H. 1987. Dietary fiber and resistant starch. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 46: 873–874.Google Scholar
  30. Findlay, J.M.; Smith, A.N.; Mitchell, W.D.; Anderson, A.J.B.; and Eastwood, M.A. 1974. Effects of unprocessed bran on colon function in normal subjects and in diverticular disease. Lancet 2: 146–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher, N.; Berry, C.S.; Fearn, T.; Gregory, J.A.; and Hardy, J. 1985. Cereal dietary fiber consumption and diverticular disease: A lifespan study in rats. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 788–804.Google Scholar
  32. Fukagawa, N.K.; Anderson, J.W.; Hageman, G.; Young, V.R.; and Minaker, K.L. 1990. High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets increase peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy young and old adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 524–528.Google Scholar
  33. Furda, I. 1981. Simultaneous analysis of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. In The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food, W.P.T. James and O. Theander, eds., pp. 163–172. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  34. Gazzaniga, J.M., and Lupton, J.R. 1987. Dilution effect of dietary fiber sources: An in vivo study in the rat. Nutr. Res. 7: 1261–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goering, H.K., and van Soest, P.J. 1970. Forage fiber analysis. USD A Agricultural Handbook No. 379. pp. 1–20. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  36. Haskell, W.L.; Spiller, G.A.; Jensen, C.D.; Ellis, B.K.; and Gates, J.E. 1992. Role of water-soluble dietary fiber in the management of elevated plasma cholesterol in healthy subjects. Am. J. Cardiol. 69: 433–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heitman, D.W.; Ord, V.A.; Hunter, K.E.; and Cameron, I.L. 1989. Effect of dietary cellulose on cell proliferation and progression of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res. 49: 5581–5585.Google Scholar
  38. Hellendoorn, E.W.; Noordhoff, M.G.; and Slagman, J. 1975. Enzymatic determination of the indigestable residue (dietary fibre) content of human food. J. Sci. Food Agric. 26: 1461–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hollenbeck, C.B.; Coulston, A.M.; and Reaven, G.M. 1986. To what extent does increased dietary fiber improve glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 16–24.Google Scholar
  40. Illman, R.J., and Topping, D.L. 1985. Effects of dietary oat bran on faecal steroid excretion, plasma volatile fatty acid and lipid synthesis in rats. Nutr. Res. 5: 839–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Illman, R.J.; Topping, D.L.; Mcintosh, G.H.; Trimble, R.P. §orer, G.B.; Taylor, M.N., and Cheng, B. 1988. Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary propionate: Studies in whole animals and perfused rat liver. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 32: 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Isaksson, G.; Lundquist, I.; and Ihse, I. 1982. Effect of dietary fibre on pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro. Gastroenterology 82: 918–924.Google Scholar
  43. Isaksson, G.; Lilja, P.; Lunquist, I.; and Ihse, I. 1983. Influence of dietary fiber on exocrine pancreatic function in the rat. Digestion 27: 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacobs, L.R. 1990. Influence of soluble fibers on experimental colon carcinogenesis. In Dietary Fiber: Chemistry, Physiology and Health Effects, D. Kritchevsky, C. Bonfield, and J.W. Anderson, eds., pp. 402–415. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  45. Jacobs, L.R., and Lupton, J.R. 1986. Relationship between colonic luminal pH, cell proliferation, and colon carcinogenesis in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed high fiber diets. Cancer Res. 46: 1727–1734.Google Scholar
  46. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Leeds, A.R.; Gassull, M.A.; Cochet, B.; and Alberti, K.G.M.M. 1977. Decrease in postprandial insulin and glucose concentrations by guar and pectin. Ann. Int. Med. 86: 20–23.Google Scholar
  47. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Leeds, A.R.; Gassull, M.A.; Haisman, P.; Dilawari, J.; Goff, D.V.; Metz, G.L., and Alberti, K.G.M.M. 1978. Dietary fibres, fibre analogues and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity. Br. Med. J. 1: 1392–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Taylor, R.H.; Reynolds, D.; Neneham, R.; and Hockaday, T.D.R. 1980. Diabetic glucose control, lipids, and trace elements on long-term guar. Br. Med. J. 280: 1353–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Thomas, D.M.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Taylor, R.H.; Barker, H.; Fielden, H.; Baldwin, J.M.; Bowling, A.C.; Newman, H.C.; Jenkins, A.L.; and Goff, D.V. 1981. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 362–366.Google Scholar
  50. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Collier, G.R.; Ocana, A.; Rao, A.V.; Buckley, G.; Lam, Y.; Mayer, A.; and Thompson, L.U. 1987. Metabolic effects of a low-glycemic-index diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 46: 968–975.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, I.T. 1990. The biological effects of dietary fibre in the small intestine. In Dietary fibre: Chemical and Biological Aspects, D.A.T. Southgate, K. Waldron, I.T. Johnson, and G.R. Fenwick, eds., pp. 151–163. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kashtan, H.; Stern, H.S.; Jenkins, D.J.A.; Jenkins, A.L.; Hay, K.; Marcon, N.; Minkin, S.; and Bruce, W.R. 1992. Wheat bran and oat bran supplements’ effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 976–980.Google Scholar
  53. Klein, K. 1988. Controlled treatment trials in the irritable bowel syndrome: A critique. Gastroenterology 95: 232–241.Google Scholar
  54. Klurfeld, D.M. 1990. Insoluble dietary fiber and experimental colon cancer: Are we asking the proper questions? In Dietary Fiber: Chemistry, Physiology and Health Effects, D. Kritchevsky, C. Bonfield, and J.W. Anderson, eds., pp. 402–415. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  55. Klurfeld, D.M.; Weber, M.M.; Buck, C.L.; and Kritchevsky, D. 1986. Dose-response of colonic carcinogenesis to different amounts and types of cellulose. Fed. Proc. 45: 1076.Google Scholar
  56. Kripke, S.A.; Fox, A.D.; Berman, J.M.; Settle, R.G.; and Rombeau, J.L. 1989. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal growth with intracolonic infusion of short-chain fatty acids. J PEN. 13: 109–116.Google Scholar
  57. Kristen, R.; Domning, B.; Nelson, K.; Nemeth, K.; Oremek, G.; Hubner-Steiner, U.; and Speck, U. 1989. Influence of guar on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 37: 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kritchevsky, D. 1988. Dietary fiber. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 8: 301–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kruh, J.; Defer, N.; and Tichonicky, L. 1991. Molecular and cellular effects of sodium butyrate. In Short-Chain Fatty Acids: Metabolism and Clinical Importance, pp. 45–50. Report of the Tenth Ross Conference on Medical Research, 2–4 December 1990, at Sanibel Island, Florida.Google Scholar
  60. Leahy, A.L.; Ellis, R.M.; and Quill, D.S. 1985. High fibre diet in symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon. Ann. R. Doll. Surg. Engl. 67: 173–174.Google Scholar
  61. LeBlanc, J.; Nadeau, A.; Mercier, I.; McKay, C.; and Samson, P. 1991. Effect of guar gum on insulinogenic and thermogenic response to glucose. Nutr. Res. 11: 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Livesey, G. 1990. Energy values of unavailable carbohydrates and diets: An inquiry and analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51: 617–637.Google Scholar
  63. Lo, G.S.; Goldberg, A.P.; Lim, A.; Grundhauser, J.J.; Anderson, L.; and Schonfeld, G. 1986. Soy fiber improves lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in primary hyperlipidemic subjects. Atherosclerosis 62: 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lupton, J.R.; Coder, D.M.; and Jacobs, L.R. 1988. Long-term effects of fermentable fibers on rat colonic pH and epithelial cell cycle. J. Nutr. 118: 840–845.Google Scholar
  65. Madar, Z.; Arieli, B.; Trostler, N.; and Norynberg, C. 1988a. Effect of consuming soybean dietary fiber on fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type II diabetes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 4: 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Madar, Z.; Abel, R.; Samish, S.; and Arad, J. 1988b. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 51–54.Google Scholar
  67. Madar, Z., and Odes, H.S. 1990a. Dietary fiber in metabolic diseases. In Dietary Fiber Research, R. Paoletti, ed., pp. 1–65. Basel: Krager.Google Scholar
  68. Madar, Z., and Odes, H.S. The therapeutic role of psyllium in health and disease. In Dietary Fiber Research, R. Paoletti, ed., pp. 90–96. Basel: Krager.Google Scholar
  69. Mallet, A.K.; Wise, A.; and Rowland, I.R. 1984. Hydrocolloid food additives and rat caecal microbial enzyme activities. Food Chem. Toxicol. 22: 415–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marlett, J.A.; Li, B.U.K.; Patrow, C.J.; and Bass, P. 1987. Comparative laxation of psyllium with and without senna in an ambulatory constipated population. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 82: 333–337.Google Scholar
  71. Meyer, J.H.; Gu, Y.G.; Jehn, D.; and Taylor, I.L. 1988. Intragastric vs intraintestinal viscous polymers and glucose tolerance after liquid meals of glucose. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48: 260–266.Google Scholar
  72. Miller, A.B.; Howe, G.R.; Jain, M.; Craib, K.J.P.; and Harrison, L. 1983. Food items and food groups as risk factors in a case-control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer. Int. J. Cancer 32: 155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Muller-Lissner, S.A. 1988. Effect of wheat bran on weight of stool and gastrointestinal transit time: A meta analysis. Br. Med. J. 296: 615–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nishimune, T.; Yakushiji, T.; Sumimoto, T.; Taguchi, S.; Konishi, Y.; Nakahara, S.; Ichikawa, T.; and Kunita, N. 1991. Glycemic response and fiber content of some foods. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 414–419.Google Scholar
  75. Nishina, P.M., and Freedland, R.A. 1990. The effects of dietary fiber feeding on cholesterol metabolism in rats. J. Nutr. 120: 800–805.Google Scholar
  76. Odes, H.S.; Madar, Z.; Trop, M.; Namir, S.; Gross, J.; and Cohen, T. 1986. Pilot study of the efficacy of spent grain dietary fiber in the treatment of constipation. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 22: 12–15.Google Scholar
  77. Odes, H.S., and Madar, Z. 1991. A double-blind trial of celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion 49: 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Potter, J.D., and McMichael, A.J. 1986. Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: A case-control study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 76: 557–569.Google Scholar
  79. Prior, A., and Whorwell, P.J. 1987. Double blind study of ispaghula in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 28: 1510–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prosky, L.; Asp, N.; Furda, J.; DeVries, J.; Schweizer, T.; and Harland, B. 1985. Determination of total dietary fiber in foods and food products: Collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 68: 677–679.Google Scholar
  81. Prosky, L. and DeVries, J. 1992. Controlling Dietary Fiber in Food Products. Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  82. Reddy, B.S. 1981. Diet and bile acids. Cancer Res. 41: 3766–3768.Google Scholar
  83. Reddy, B.S.; Engle, A.; Simi, B.; and Goldman, M. 1992. Effect of dietary fiber on colonic bacterial enzymes and bile acids in relation to colon cancer. Gastroenterology 102: 1475–1482.Google Scholar
  84. Roberton, A.M.; Ferguson, L.R.; Hollands, H.J.; and Harris, P.J. 1991. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber preparations. Mutation Res. 262: 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts-Anderson, J.; Mehta, T.; and Wilson, R.B. 1987. Reduction of DMH-induced colon tumors in rats fed psyllium husk or cellulose. Nutr. Cancer 10: 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sakata, T. 1987. Stimulatory effect of short-chain fatty acids on epithelial cell proliferation in the rat intestine: A possible explanation for trophic effects of fermentable fibre gut microbes and luminal trophic factors. Br. J. Nutr. 58: 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sanders, T.A.B., and Reddy, S. 1992. The influence of rice bran on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in human volunteers. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 46: 167–172.Google Scholar
  88. Selvendran, R.R.; Stevens, B.J.H.; and Du Pont, M.S. 1987. Dietary fiber: Chemistry, analysis, and properties. Adv. Fd. Res. 31: 117–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Southgate, D.A.T. 1969. Determination of carbohydrate in foods II. Unavailable carbohydrates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 20: 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stevens, J.; Van Soest, P.J.; Robertson, J.B.; and Levitsky, D.A. 1988. Comparison of the effects of psyllium and wheat bran on gastrointestinal transit time and stool characteristics. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 88: 323–326.Google Scholar
  91. Story, J.A. 1986. Modification of steroid excretion in response to dietary fiber. In Dietary Fiber Basic and Clinical Aspects, G.V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky, eds., pp. 253–264. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  92. Superko, H.R.; Haskell, W.L.; Sawrey-Kubicek, L.; and Farquhar, J.W. 1988. Effects of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 62: 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Swain, J.F.; Rouse, I.L.; Curley, C.B.; and Sacks, F.M. 1990. Comparison of the effects of oat bran and low-fiber wheat on serum lipoprotein levels and blood pressure. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tomlin, J., and Read, N.W. 1988. The relation between bacterial degradation of viscous polysaccharides and stool output in human beings. Br. J. Nutr. 60: 467–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Topping, D.L.; Oakenfull, D.; Trimble, R.P.; and Illman, R.J. 1988. A viscous fibre (methylcellulose) lowers blood glucose and plasma triacylglycerols and increases liver glycogen independently of volatile acid production in the rat. Br. J. Nutr. 59: 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Trock, B.; Lanza, E.; and Greenwald, P. 1990. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: Critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiological evidence. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82: 650–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trowell, H.; Southgate, D.A.T.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Leeds, A.R. αssull, M.A.; and Jenkins, D.A. 1976. Dietary fibre redefined. Lancet 1: 967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vahouny, G.V., and Cassidy, M.M. 1985. Dietary fibers and absorption of nutrients. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 180: 432–446.Google Scholar
  99. Vahouny, G.V., and Cassidy, M.M. 1986. Dietary fiber and intestinal adaptation. In Dietary Fiber Basic and Clinical Aspects, G.V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky, eds., pp. 253–264. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  100. Vinik, A.I., and Jenkins, D.J.A. 1988. Dietary fiber in management of diabetes. Diabetes Care 11: 160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walker, A.R.P.; Walker, B.F.; and Walker, A.J., 1986. Fecal pH, dietary fibre intake and proneness to colon cancer in four South African populations. Br. J. Cancer. 53: 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wolever, T.M.S. 1990. Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51: 72–75.Google Scholar
  103. Wrick, K.L.; Robertson, J.B.; Van Soest, P.J.; Lewis, B.A.; Rivers, J.M.; Roe, D.A.; and Hackler, L.R. 1983. The influence of dietary fiber source on human intestinal transit and stool output. J. Nutr. 113: 1464–1479.Google Scholar
  104. Wright, R.S.; Anderson, J.W.; and Bridges, S.R. 1990. Propionate inhibits hepatocyte lipid synthesis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 195: 26–29.Google Scholar
  105. Wursch, P.; Del Vedovo, S.; and Koellreutter, B. 1986. Cell structure and starch nature as key determinants of the digestion rate of starch in legume. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 25–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aliza Stark
  • Zecharia Madar

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations