Construction surveying operations comprise approximately 60% of all surveying work being performed and should be considered a definite specialty of the modern surveyor. Three basic objectives of construction surveying are (1) providing layout stakes, located both horizontally and vertically, that construction personnel can utilize in an accurate and efficient manner to position structures or earthwork projects; (2) ongoing replacement of layout stakes as a project progresses toward completion, along with periodic checking of projects to ensure compliance with design dimensions; and (3) providing a map at the completion of a project, showing the final project location and configuration, incorporating any changes or modifications in project design—an “as-built” map.
KeywordsShrinkage Sewage Expense Posite Gravel
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