Extraction of the water-soluble vitamins

  • G. F. M. Ball

Abstract

A discussion of the extraction process begins with establishing the analytical objective. If the investigator needs to know the nutritional value of a food sample, but is not carrying out an animal bioassay, it is desirable to use an extraction process that allows only the biologically available fraction of the total amount of vitamin present to be measured. On the other hand, if the investigator is carrying out an animal bioassay, the additional in vitro determination of the total vitamin content of the food source allows the bioavailability of the vitamin to be calculated. The extraction procedure in the in vitro assay must be capable of releasing the bound forms of the vitamin for subsequent quantification. This creates the problem of ensuring that the extraction procedure is powerful enough to break the bonds linking the vitamin to protein or to carbohydrate, and yet does not cause significant thermal or chemical destruction of the vitamin during the process. The vitamins have little in common with each other in terms of their physical and chemical properties, and there is no universal extraction process that adequately fulfils either of the above analytical objectives. The problem is further compounded by the complex and variable nature of the food matrix. The analytical results must therefore be interpreted on the basis of knowledge of the sample and the extraction process employed.

Keywords

Hydrolysis Starch Steam Toluene Folate 

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