Advertisement

Utilisation of Milk Components: Whey

  • J. G. Zadow

Abstract

Whey may be defined, broadly, as the serum or watery part of milk remaining after separation of the curd that results from the coagulation of milk by acid or proteolytic enzymes. Its composition will vary substantially, depending on the variety of cheese produced or the method of casein manufacture employed. On average, whey contains about 65 g kg-1 of solids, comprising about 50 g lactose, 6 g protein, 6 g ash, 2 g non-protein nitrogen and 0.5 g fat. The protein fraction contains about 50 per cent β-lactoglobulin, 25 per cent a-lactalbumin and 25 per cent other protein fractions including immunoglobulins. There are wide variations in composition depending on milk supply, and the process involved in production of the whey. Wheys can be conveniently classed into groups:

Sweet wheys: titratable acidity 0.10-0.20 per cent pH typically 5.8-6.6. Medium acid wheys: titratable acidity 020-0.40 per cent, pH typically 5.0-5.8.

Acid wheys: titratable acidity greater than 0.40 per cent, pH>5.0.

Keywords

Whey Protein Reverse Osmosis Cheese Whey Zealand Journal Whey Protein Concentrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allum, D. (1980). Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 33, 59.Google Scholar
  2. Amundson, C. H., Watanawanichakorn, S. and Hill, C. G. (1982). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 6, 55.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (1979). IDF Bulletin, 115. Google Scholar
  4. Asp, N. G., Burvall, A., Dahlqvist, A., Hallgren, P. and Lundblad, A. (1980). Food Chemistry,5, 147.Google Scholar
  5. Australian Dairy Corporation (1983). Australian Dairy Corporation, Planning Division, Australian Dairy Corporation, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  6. Ayers, J. S. and Petersen, M. J. (1985). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 20, 129.Google Scholar
  7. Ayers, J. S., Petersen, M. J., Sheerin, B. E. and Bethell, G. S. (1984). Journal of Chromatography,294, 195.Google Scholar
  8. Barker, C. M. and Morr, C. V. (1986). Journal of Food Science, 51, 919.Google Scholar
  9. Bartosh J. A. and Manderson, G. J. (1982). In: Brief Communications, XXI International Dairy Congress, Volume 1 (2) p. 526.Google Scholar
  10. Batchelder, B. T. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 84.Google Scholar
  11. Beaton, N. C. (1979). Journal of Food Protection, 42, 584.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, H. M., Scott, P. H., Kenward, C., Scott, P. and Wharton, B. A. (1979). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 54, 98.Google Scholar
  13. Best, E., Plainer, H. and Sprossler, B. (1982). European Patent Application 0 057 273 A2.Google Scholar
  14. Blanc, B. (1969). In: Proceedings,IDF Seminar on Whey Processing and Utilisation, Weihenstephan, Germany, 11–13/11/1969, pp. 11–13.Google Scholar
  15. Boer, R. and Robbertsen, T. (1981). Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 35, 95.Google Scholar
  16. Booy, C. J. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 62.Google Scholar
  17. Bos, M. J. van den (1987). IDF Bulletin,212, 99.Google Scholar
  18. Brothersen, C. F., Olson, N. F. and Richardson, T. (1982). Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 17.Google Scholar
  19. Buchta, W. J. (1991). Journal of Dairy Research, 58, 211.Google Scholar
  20. Buhler, M., Olofsson, M. and Fosseux, P. Y. (1981). US Patent 4 265 924.Google Scholar
  21. Burvall, A., Asp, N.-G. and Dahlqvist, A. (1969). Food Chemistry, 4, 243.Google Scholar
  22. Chebotarev, E. A., Nesterenko, P. G., Davydyants, L. E., Mikhailova, N. T. and Chebotareva, N. G. (1983). Molochnaya Promyshlennost, 2, 26.Google Scholar
  23. Chen, S.-L. Y., Frank, J. F. and Loewenstein, M. (1981). Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 64, 1414.Google Scholar
  24. Cheryan, M. and Merin, U. (1979). Abstracts of Papers, National Society,Meeting, American Chemical 178 (1), COLL 128.Google Scholar
  25. Cheryan, M. and Merin, U. (1980). Polymer Science and Technology, 13, 619.Google Scholar
  26. Christopherson, A. T. and Zottola, E. A. (1989). Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 2862.Google Scholar
  27. Chiu, C. P. and Kosikowski, F. V. (1985). Journal of Dairy Science, 68, 16.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, W. S. (1979). Journal of Dairy Science, 62, 96.Google Scholar
  29. Clark, W. S. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 6.Google Scholar
  30. Coton, S. G. (1980). Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 33, 89.Google Scholar
  31. Craig, T. W. (1979). Journal of Dairy Science, 62, 1695.Google Scholar
  32. Dahlgren, S. A. (1978). UK Patent 1 526 903.Google Scholar
  33. Delaney, R. A. M. (1979). In: Proceedings, Whey Products Conference, Minneapolis, 1978, p. 111.Google Scholar
  34. Demaimay, M., Le Henaff, Y. and Printemps, P. (1978). Process Biochemistry, 13 (4), 3.Google Scholar
  35. Demmler, G. (1968). In: Handbuch der Lebensmittelchemie, Volume III/1 863, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Dohan, L. A., Baret, J. L., Pain, S. and Delalande, P. (1980). Enzyme Engineering, 5, 279.Google Scholar
  37. Dunkerley, J. A. and Zadow, J. G. (1981). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 16, 243.Google Scholar
  38. Dziuba, J. and Chojnowski, W. (1982). In: Brief Communications, XXI International Dairy Congress, Volume 1 (2), p. 173.Google Scholar
  39. Ennis, B. M. and Higgins, J. J. (1981). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 16, 167.Google Scholar
  40. Ennis, B. M. and Maddox, I. S. (1987). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 29, 329.Google Scholar
  41. Eriksson P. (1986a) AICHE Annual Meeting, Poster. Miami, 2–7 November.Google Scholar
  42. Eriksson, P. (1986b) AICHE Annual Meeting, Poster. Miami, 2–7 November.Google Scholar
  43. Euber, J. R. and Brunner, J. R. (1979). Journal of Dairy Science, 62, 685.Google Scholar
  44. Fauquant, J., Vieco, E., Brule, G. and Maubois, J. L. (1985). Lait, 65, 1, 20.Google Scholar
  45. Ferretti, A. and Chambers, J. V. (1979). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 27, 687.Google Scholar
  46. Flaschel, E., Raetz, E. and Renken, A. (1982). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 24, 2499.Google Scholar
  47. Foley, A. A. and Bates, G. W. (1987). Analytical Biochemistry, 162, 296.Google Scholar
  48. Food and Agriculture Organisation (1981). FAO Production Yearbook, Volume 34, p. 234.Google Scholar
  49. Friend, B. A. and Shahani, K. M. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 143.Google Scholar
  50. Garfield, E. (1980). Current Contents: Life Sciences, 23, 5.Google Scholar
  51. Gawel, J. and Kosikowski, F. V. (1978). Journal of Food Science, 43, 1717.Google Scholar
  52. Giec, A. and Kosikowski, F. V. (1982). Journal of Food Science, 47, 188.Google Scholar
  53. Giec, J., Czarnecka, I., Baraniecka, B. and Skupin J. (1978). Acta Alimentaria Polonica, 4, 247.Google Scholar
  54. Greenshields, R. and Rothman, H. (1986). In: Cambridge Studies in Biotechnology, Volume 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  55. Gregory, A. G. (1986). In: Proceedings of International Whey Conference, Chicago, 27–29 October.Google Scholar
  56. Griethuysen, E. van, Flaschel, E. and Renken, A. (1985). Journal of Chemical Biotechnology B, 35, 129.Google Scholar
  57. Griffiths, M. W. and Muir, D. D. (1980). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 31, 397.Google Scholar
  58. Haggett, T. O. R. (1976). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 11, 176.Google Scholar
  59. Hanemaaijer, J. H. (1985). Desalination, 53, 143.Google Scholar
  60. Hannigan, K. J. (1982). Food Engineering, 54 (3), 96.Google Scholar
  61. Harfouch, M., Collard-Bovy, C. and Ramet, J. P. (1985). Sciences des Aliments, 5, 181.Google Scholar
  62. Hargrove, R. E., McDonough, F. E., La Croix, D. E. and Alford, J. A. (1976). Journal of Dairy Science, 59, 25.Google Scholar
  63. Harper, W. J. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 156.Google Scholar
  64. Hartmeier, W. (1982). In: Use of Enzymes in Food Technology, International Symposium, Versailles, 1982 (Ed. P. Dupuy), Technique et Documentation Lavoisier, Paris, p. 205.Google Scholar
  65. Hausser, A. G. (1984). In: Proceedings of Whey Production Conference, Chicago, October 25–26, Philadelphia, p. 63.Google Scholar
  66. Hayes, J. F. (1982a). In: Working Papers, 2nd Dairy Technology Review Conference, Glenormiston, Victoria, 1982, p. 211.Google Scholar
  67. Hayes, J. F. (1982b). In: Working Papers, 2nd Dairy Technology Review Conference, Glenormiston, Victoria, 1982, p. 213.Google Scholar
  68. Hayes, J. F. and Mitchell, I. R. (1982). In: Proceedings, 2nd Whey Protein Collaborative Research Group Conference, Highett, Victoria, 1983, p. 379.Google Scholar
  69. Hayes, J. F., Dunkerley, J. A., Muller, L. L. and Griffin, A. T. (1974). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 29, 132.Google Scholar
  70. Hayes, J. F., Mitchell, I. R. and Zadow, J. G. (1990). Summary of lactose hydrolysis project, Dairy Research Laboratory Report, CSIRO, Australia.Google Scholar
  71. Heikonen, M., Harju, U. M. and Tykklainen, P. (1985). Nordisk Mejeriindustrie 12, 76.Google Scholar
  72. Heng, M. H. and Glatz, C. E. (1991). Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 11.Google Scholar
  73. Hickey, M. E. and Hill, R. D. (1980). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 15, 123.Google Scholar
  74. Hicks, K. B., Raupp, D. L. and Smith, P. W. (1983). Abstracts of Papers, National Meeting, American Chemical Society, 186, AGFD 159.Google Scholar
  75. Hillier, R. M. and Cheeseman, G. C. (1979). Journal of Dairy Research, 46, 113.Google Scholar
  76. Hillier, R. M., Lyster, R. L. J. and Cheeseman, G. C. (1979). Journal of Dairy Research, 46, 103.Google Scholar
  77. Hillier, R. M., Lyster, R. L. J. and Cheeseman, G. C. (1980). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 31, 1152.Google Scholar
  78. Hobman, P. G. (1984). Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 2630.Google Scholar
  79. Hoogstraten, J. J. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 16.Google Scholar
  80. Hossain, M., Brooks, J. D. and Maddox, I. S. (1983). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 18, 161.Google Scholar
  81. Hourigan, J. A., Zarb, J. M. and Kissell, W. (1983). In: Proceedings,2nd Whey Protein Research Conference, Highett, Victoria, 1983.Google Scholar
  82. Hsu, K. H. and Fennema, O. (1989). Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 829.Google Scholar
  83. Humbert, G. and Alais, C. (1982). La Technique Laitiere, 952, 41.Google Scholar
  84. Hunyh, N. V., Decleire, M., Voels, A. M., Molte, J. C. and Monseur, X. (1986). Process Biochemistry, 21, 31.Google Scholar
  85. Hynd, J. (1980). Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 33, 52.Google Scholar
  86. Jackson, M. B. (1980). Research Review, CSIRO Division of Chemical Technology, p. 45.Google Scholar
  87. Janssens, J. H., Bernard, A. and Bailey, R. B. (1984). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 26, 1.Google Scholar
  88. Jenness, R. and Patton, S. (1959). Principles of Dairy Chemistry, Wiley, New York, p. 89.Google Scholar
  89. Jeon, I. J. and Mantha, V. R. (1985). Journal of Dairy Science, 68, 581.Google Scholar
  90. Jeon, I. J. and Saunders, S. R. (1986). Journal of Food Science, 51, 245.Google Scholar
  91. Johns, J. E. M. (1982). Brief Communications, XXI International Dairy Congress, Volume 1 (2), p. 196.Google Scholar
  92. Johns, J. E. M. and Ennis, B. M. (1981). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 16, 79.Google Scholar
  93. Jonsson, H. and Arph, S. O. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 91.Google Scholar
  94. Jonsson, H. and Forsman, B. (1978). Nordisk Mejeriindustri, 5, 636.Google Scholar
  95. Kamiya, T. and Kaminogawa, S. (1980). Japanese Journal of Dairy and Food Science, 29, A-15, A-27.Google Scholar
  96. Kinsella, J. E. (1981). Food Chemistry, 7, 273.Google Scholar
  97. Kjaergaard-Jensen, G. and Oxlund, J. K. (1988). IDF Bulletin, 238, 4.Google Scholar
  98. Kjaergaard-Jensen, G. (1987). IDF Bulletin,212, 27.Google Scholar
  99. Kosikowski, F. V. (1977). Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods, 2nd edn, Edward Bros., Ann Arbor, Michigan, p. 448.Google Scholar
  100. Kwon, S. Y. and Nickerson, T. A. (1978). Journal of Dairy Science, 61 Supp. 1, 112.Google Scholar
  101. La Gueriviere, J.-F. de. (1981). La Technique Laitiere, 952, 89.Google Scholar
  102. Labuza, T. P. and Saltmarch, M. (1982). Journal of Food Science, 47, 92.Google Scholar
  103. Lang, F. (1980). Milk Industry,82 (2), 30.Google Scholar
  104. Lee, C. H. and Johnson, R. A. (1987). In: Proceedings, International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes, Tokyo, 8–12 June.Google Scholar
  105. Lee, D. N. and Merson, R. L. (1976). Journal of Food Science, 41, 778.Google Scholar
  106. Lewicki, P. P., Galoch, I. and Slesinka, K. (1981). Przemysl Spozywczy, 35, 102.Google Scholar
  107. Linko, Y. Y., Jalanka, H. and Linko, P. (1981). Biotechnology Letters, 3, 263.Google Scholar
  108. Lipatov, N. N. and Chebotarev, E. A. (1982). Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebbnykh Zave denii, Pischchevaya Tekhnologiya, 2, 41.Google Scholar
  109. Lovell-Smith, J. E. R. (1982). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 17, 161.Google Scholar
  110. Luquet, F.-M. (1980). La Technique Laitiere, 940, 23.Google Scholar
  111. Lyons, T. P. and Cunningham, J. D. (1980). American Dairy Review, 42 (11), 42A.Google Scholar
  112. MacBean, R. D., Hall, R. J. and Willman, N. J. (1979). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 34, 53.Google Scholar
  113. McGugan, W. A., Larmond, E. and Emmons, D. B. (1979). Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 12, 32.Google Scholar
  114. Maculan, T. P., Hourigan, J. A. and Rand, A. G. (1978). Journal of Dairy Science, 61 Supp 1, 114.Google Scholar
  115. Maddox, I. S. (1980). Biotechnology Letters, 2, 493.Google Scholar
  116. Madrid Vicente, A. (1979). Industrie Alimentan, 18, 811.Google Scholar
  117. Mahmoud, M. M. and Kosikowski, F. V. (1978). Journal of Dairy Science, 61 Supp. 1.1, 114.Google Scholar
  118. Mahmoud, M. M. and Kosikowski, F. V. (1982). Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 2082.Google Scholar
  119. Mahmoud, R., Brown, R. J. and Ernstrom, C. A. (1990). Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 1694.Google Scholar
  120. Manczak, M. (1979). Przemsyl Spozywczy, 33, 382.Google Scholar
  121. Marconi, W., Bartoli, F., Morisi, F. and Marani, A. (1980). Enzyme Engineering, 5, 269.Google Scholar
  122. Marshall, S. C. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 103.Google Scholar
  123. Marshall, K. R. and Harper, W. J. (1987). IDF Document No. 388/B 21.Google Scholar
  124. Matthews (1984). Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 2680.Google Scholar
  125. Matthews, M. E. (1978). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 13, 149.Google Scholar
  126. Matthews, M. E. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 86.Google Scholar
  127. Matvievskii, V., Ya., Kravchenko, E. F. and Khramtsov, A. G. (1978). Trudy,Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-issledovatel’skii Institut Maslodel’noi i Syrodel’noi Promyshlennosti Nauchno-proizvodstvennogo Ob“edinenya ‘Uglich’, 26, 13.Google Scholar
  128. Maubois, J.-L. (1982). `Les proteins lactoserum extraites pour ultrafiltration’. In: Proteines animales (ed. C. M. Bourgeois and P. Roux), Technique and Documentation, Lavosier, p. 172.Google Scholar
  129. Maubois, J.-L., Brule, G. and Gourdon, P. (1981). Technique Laitiere, 14, 86.Google Scholar
  130. Maubois, J.-L., Pierre, A., Fauquant, J. and Piot, M. (1987). IDF Bulletin,212, 154.Google Scholar
  131. Mendez, A. and Olano, A. (1979). Dairy Science Abstracts, 41, 531.Google Scholar
  132. Merin, U., Gordin, S. and Tanny, G. B. (1983). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 18, 153.Google Scholar
  133. Meyrath, J. and Bayer, K. (1979). Economic Microbiology, 4 (microbial biomass), 207.Google Scholar
  134. Mirabel, B. (1978). Informations Chimie, 175, 105.Google Scholar
  135. Mizota, T., Tamura, Y., Tomita, M. and Okonogi, S. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 69.Google Scholar
  136. Modler, H. W. and Harwalker, V. R. (1981). Milchwissenschaft, 36, 537.Google Scholar
  137. Modler, H. W. and Jones, J. D. (1987). Food Technology, 41 (10), 114.Google Scholar
  138. Moebus, O. and Tueber, M. (1983). In: Production and feeding of single cell proteins. Proceedings, COST workshop, Zurich, Switzerland,(Ed. M. P. Ferranti and A. Fletcher), Applied Science, London p. 124.Google Scholar
  139. Moon, N. J. and Hammond, E. G. (1978). Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 55, 683.Google Scholar
  140. Morr, C. V. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 185.Google Scholar
  141. Morr, C. V. (1982). In: Developments in Dairy Chemistry - 1 - Proteins (Ed. P. F. Fox), Applied Science, New York, pp. 375–99.Google Scholar
  142. Morr, C. V. (1984). Food Technology, 38, 39.Google Scholar
  143. Moulin, G. and Galzy, P. (1981). Biotechn. Gen. Eng. Rev. 1, 374.Google Scholar
  144. Mozaffar, Z., Nakanishi, K., and Matsuno, R. (1985). Journal of Food Science, 50, 1602.Google Scholar
  145. Muller, L. L. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 121.Google Scholar
  146. Muller, L. L. and Harper, W. J. (1979). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28, 70.Google Scholar
  147. Muller, L. L., Hayes, J. F. and Griffin, A. T. (1973). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 28, 70.Google Scholar
  148. Nichols, J. A. and Morr, C. V. (1985). Journal of Food Science, 50, 610.Google Scholar
  149. Nickerson, T. A. (1974). In: Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry (Ed. B. H. Webb, A. H. Johnson and J. A. Alford), AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut, p. 273.Google Scholar
  150. Norman, B. E., Severinsen, S. G., Nielsen, T. and Wagner, J. (1978). Nordeuropaeisk Mejeri Tidsskrift, 44, 129.Google Scholar
  151. O’Keefe, A. M. and Kelly, J. (1981). Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 35, 292.Google Scholar
  152. Ottofrickenstein, H., Plainer, H., Sprossler, B. and White, H. (1984). German Patent Application 33 10 430 Al.Google Scholar
  153. Parrish, F. W. (1976). In: Proceedings, Whey Products Conference, Atlantic City 1976, p. 104.Google Scholar
  154. Pastore, G. M. and Park, Y. K. (1981). Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 1, 65.Google Scholar
  155. Patel, P. C. and Merson, R. L. (1978). Journal of Food Science and Technology, India, 15, 56.Google Scholar
  156. Patel, M. T. and Kilara, A. (1990). Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 2731.Google Scholar
  157. Patel, M. T., Kilara, A., Huffman, L. M., Hewitt, S. A. and Houlihan, A. V. (1990). Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 1439.Google Scholar
  158. Paulsson, M., Dejmek, P. and Vilet, T. van (1990). Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 45.Google Scholar
  159. Pazur, J. H. (1970). In: Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume IIA, (Ed. W. Pigman, D. Horton and A. Herp), 2nd edn, Academic Press, New York, p. 69.Google Scholar
  160. Pearce, R. J. (1983). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 38, 144.Google Scholar
  161. Pearce, R. J. (1987). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 42, 75.Google Scholar
  162. Pepper, D. (1981). Dairy Industries International, 46, 24.Google Scholar
  163. Pepper, D. (1988). Proceedings,IMTEC Meeting, Sydney 15–17 November.Google Scholar
  164. Pepper, D. and Pain, L. H. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 25.Google Scholar
  165. Phillips, L. G., Hawkes, S., Rosmussen, R. A., Barbano, D. M. and Kinsella, J. E. (1991). Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 101.Google Scholar
  166. Pirhonen (1987). Finnish Journal of Dairy Science, 45, 62.Google Scholar
  167. Posati, L. P. and Orr, M. L. (1976). Agriculture Handbook, US Department of Agriculture, No. 8–1.Google Scholar
  168. Poutanen, K., Linko, Y.-Y. and Linko, P. (1978). Nordeuropaeisk Mejeri Tidsskrift, 44, 90.Google Scholar
  169. Prenosil, J. E., Stuker, E., Hediger, T. and Boume, J. R. (1984a). Annals of the New York Academy of Science,434, 136.Google Scholar
  170. Prenosil, J. E., Stuker, E., Hediger, T. and Boume, J. R. (1984b). Biotechnology, 2, 441.Google Scholar
  171. Quickert, S. C. and Bernhard, R. A. (1982). Journal of Food Science, 47, 1705.Google Scholar
  172. Regester, G. O. and Smitters (1991). Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 796.Google Scholar
  173. Renner, E. (1983). Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition, Volkswirtschaft-licher Verlag, Munich.Google Scholar
  174. Rexroat, T. M. and Bradley, R. L. (1986). Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 1762.Google Scholar
  175. Rheinlander, P. M. (1982). North European Dairy Journal, 48, 121.Google Scholar
  176. Richert, S. H. (1979). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,27, 665.Google Scholar
  177. Ritzel, G., Stahelin, H. B., Schneeberger, H., Wanner, M. and Jost, M. (1979). International Journal for Vitamin Nutrition Research, 49, 419.Google Scholar
  178. Robinson, B. P., Short, J. L. and Marshall, K. R. (1976). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 11, 114.Google Scholar
  179. Rockey, J. and Zaror, C. (1988). In: Developments in food microbiology - 4 (Ed. R. K. Robinson), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 188.Google Scholar
  180. Roeper, J. (1971). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 6, 112.Google Scholar
  181. Ron, I. (1986). Meieriposten, 75, 356.Google Scholar
  182. Ruegg, M., Moor, U. and Blanc, B. (1977). Journal of Dairy Research, 44, 509.Google Scholar
  183. Ryder, D. N. (1980). Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 33, 73.Google Scholar
  184. Saijonmaa, T., Heikonen, M., Kreula, M. and Linko, P. (1978). Milchwissenschaft, 33, 733.Google Scholar
  185. Saito, T., Yamaji, A. and Itoh, T. (1991). Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 2831.Google Scholar
  186. Saltmarch, M. (1980). Abstracts International B, 41, 879.Google Scholar
  187. Saltmarch, M. and Labuza, T. P. (1980). Scanning Electron Microscopy, 3, 659.Google Scholar
  188. Sandbach, D. M. L. (1981a). Cultured Dairy Products Journal, 16 (4), 17.Google Scholar
  189. Sandbach, D. M. L. (1981b). Proceedings, Second Bi-ennial Marschall Interna-tional Cheese Conference, Madison, 1981, p. 17.Google Scholar
  190. Sandfort, P. H. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 21.Google Scholar
  191. Sandhu, D. K. and Waraich, M. K. (1983). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 25, 797.Google Scholar
  192. Schmidt, R. H., Illingworth, B. L., Deng, J. C. and Cornell, J. A. (1979). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 27, 529.Google Scholar
  193. Scott, T. C., Hill, C. G. and Amundson, C. H. (1986). Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposium, 17, 585.Google Scholar
  194. Shah, N. O. and Nickerson, T. A. (1978). Journal of Food Science, 43, 1575.Google Scholar
  195. Sienkiewicz, T. and Riedel, C.-L. (1990). Whey and Whey Utilization, Verlag. Th. Mann, Gelsenkirchen-Buer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  196. Skudder, P. J. (1985). Journal of Dairy Research, 52, 167.Google Scholar
  197. Slack, A. W., Amundson, C. H. and Hill, C. G. (1986a). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 10, 31.Google Scholar
  198. Slack, A. W., Amundson, C. H. and Hill, C. G. (1986b) Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 10, 81.Google Scholar
  199. Sloth Hansen, P. and Kjaergaard-Jensen, K. G. (1977). Investigations concerning variations in the composition of whey. 224, Beretning, States Forsogmejerie, Hillerood, Denmark, pp. 1–77.Google Scholar
  200. Smith, B. R. and MacBean, R. D. (1978). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 33, 57.Google Scholar
  201. Somkuti, G. A. and Bencivengo, M. M. (1981). Developments in Industrial Microbiology, 22, 557.Google Scholar
  202. Sottiez, P. (1985). Produits derives des fabrications Fromages. Lactis et produits lactierie V2. 347 (Ed. F. M. Luquet), Lavoisier, Paris.Google Scholar
  203. Stauffer, K. R. and Leeder, J. G. (1978). Journal of Food Science, 43, 756.Google Scholar
  204. Stevens, D., Alam, S. and Bajpai, R. (1988). Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 3, 15.Google Scholar
  205. Stieber, R. W. and Gerhardt, P. (1979). Journal of Dairy Science, 62, 1558.Google Scholar
  206. Strobel, D. R. (1972). Foreign Agriculture, 10 (46), 9.Google Scholar
  207. Thompson, L. U. and Reyes, E. S. (1980). Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 715.Google Scholar
  208. Tong, P. S., Barbano, D. M. and Jordan, W. K. (1989). Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 1435.Google Scholar
  209. Varunsatian, S., Watanabe, K., Hayakawa, S. and Nakamura, R. (1983). Journal of Food Science, 48, 42.Google Scholar
  210. Velthuijsen, J. A. van (1979). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,27, 680.Google Scholar
  211. Visser, R. A. (1980). Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 34, 255.Google Scholar
  212. Visser, R. J., Bos, van den, M. P. and Fergusson, W. P. (1988). IDF Bulletin,233, 33.Google Scholar
  213. Webb, B. H. (1972). American Dairy Review, 34, 6.Google Scholar
  214. Widell, S. (1979). In: Proceedings,Whey Products Conference, Minneapolis, 1978, p. 53.Google Scholar
  215. Williams, C. A. and MacDonald, I. (1982). Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 26, 374.Google Scholar
  216. Wilson, L. G., Bottomley, R. C., Sutton, P. M. and Sisk, C. H. (1988). Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 41, 10. Google Scholar
  217. Wit, J. N. de and Klarenbeek, G. (1978). British Patent 1 519 897.Google Scholar
  218. Wright, D. G. and Rand, A. G. (1973). Journal of Food Science, 38, 1132.Google Scholar
  219. Yoshida, S. (1989). Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 1446.Google Scholar
  220. Yoshida, S. (1990). Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 2292.Google Scholar
  221. Yoshida, S. and Ye-xiuyun (1991). Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 1439.Google Scholar
  222. Zadow, J. G. (1979). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology, 14, 131.Google Scholar
  223. Zadow, J. G. (1982). Proceedings,2nd Australian Dairy Technology Review Conference, Glenormiston, Victoria, 1982, p. 276.Google Scholar
  224. Zadow, J. G. (1985). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 41, 96.Google Scholar
  225. Zadow, J. G. (1987). IDF Bulletin, 212, 12.Google Scholar
  226. Zadow, J. G. (1991). CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, 51, (1/2), 99. Google Scholar
  227. Zaetz, N. E., Kubanskaja, D. M. and Kocherov, N. I. (1982). In: Proceedings,XXI International Dairy Congress,Volume 1 (2), p. 657. Google Scholar
  228. Zarb, J. M. and Hourigan, J. A. (1979). Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 34, 184. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Zadow
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Food Research, CSIRODairy Research LaboratoryHighettAustralia

Personalised recommendations