Advertisement

Stable isotope ratio measurement using a laser microprobe

  • Ian P. Wright
Part of the The Mineralogical Society Series book series (MIBS, volume 6)

Abstract

Many elements have two or more stable isotopes and can, therefore, be usefully studied for variations in their isotope ratios. These isotopes, unlike those of the radioactive variety, are completely stable and do not disintegrate with time. As such, when a non-volatile material such as a mineral is formed, the constituent elements should theoretically retain their isotopic integrity forever; subsequent measurement of these isotope ratios may assist with an effective reconstruction of the formation conditions. In reality, the isotopic compositions of a particular mineral may become modified as a result of an external influence, such as a heating process during hydrothermal activity. In this case, stable isotope measurements may be able to document something of the secondary activity which has befallen the sample of interest.

Keywords

Isotopic Composition Stable Isotope Fluid Inclusion Isotopic Fractionation Oxygen Isotopic Composition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrain, R.S. and Watson, J. (1984) Laser microspectral analysis: a review of principles and applications. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 17, 1915–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alt, J.C., Anderson, T.F. and Bonneil, L. (1989) The geochemistry of sulfur in a 1.3km section of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust, DSDP Hole 504B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 1011–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, J.N. and Grant, J.N. (1980) Analysis of fluid inclusions using a pulsed laser microprobe. Mineral. Mag., 43, 945–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyd, S.R., Mattey, D.P., Pillinger, C.T. et al. (1987) Multiple growth events during diamond genesis: an integrated study of carbon and nitrogen isotopes and nitrogen aggregation state in coated stones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 86, 341–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd, S.R., Wright, I.P., Franchi, I.A. and Pillinger, C.T. (1988) Preparation of sub-nanomole quantities of nitrogen gas for stable isotopic analysis. J. Phys. E: Sci. Instr., 21, 876–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clayton. R.N. and Epstein, S. (1958) The relationship between O18/O16 ratios in coexisting quartz, carbonate, and iron oxides from various geological deposits. J. Geol., 66, 352–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conzemius, R.J. and Capellen, J.M. (1980) A review of the applications to solids of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 34, 197–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conzemius, R.J., Simons, D.S., Shankai, Z. and Byrd, G.D. (1983) Laser mass spectrometry of solids: a bibliography 1963-1982. Microbeam Analysis-1983 (ed. R. Gooley), pp. 301–32.Google Scholar
  9. Crowe, D.E. and Valley, J.W. (1992) Laser microprobe study of sulfur isotope variation in a sea-floor hydrothermal spire, Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, eastern Pacific. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crowe. D.E., Valley, J.W. and Baker, K.L. (1990) Microanalysis of sulfur-isotope ratios and zonation by laser microprobe. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2075–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deloule, E. and Éloy, J.F. (1982) Improvements of laser probe mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis of fluid inclusions in ores. Chem. Geol., 37, 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickson, J.A.D., Smalley, P.C. and Kirkland, B.L. (1991) Carbon and oxygen isotopes in Pennsylvanian biogenic and abiogenic aragonite (Otero County, New Mexico): a laser microprobe study. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 2607–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eldridge, C.S., Compston, W., Williams, I.S. and Walshe, J.L. (1989) Sulfur isotopic analyses on the SHRIMP ion microprobe, in New Frontiers in Stable Isotopic Research: Laser Probes, Ion Probes, and Small-sample Analysis (eds W.C. Shanks and R.E. Criss), US Geol. Surv. Bull., 1890, 163–74.Google Scholar
  14. Elsenheimer, D. and Valley, J.W. (1992) In situ oxygen isotope analysis of feldspar and quartz by Nd: YAG laser microprobe. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Erëmin. N.I. (1975) Quantitative analysis by means of the laser microanalyser LMA-1. Mineral. Mag., 40, 312–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fallick. A.E. (1990) High precision sulfur isotope ratio measurements by laser probe mass spectrometry. Bull. Soc. fr. Mineral. Cristallog., 2/3, 131.Google Scholar
  17. Fallick. A.E., McConville. P., Boyce, A.J. et al. (1992) Laser microprobe stable isotope measurements on geological materials: some experimental considerations (with special reference to δ34S in sulphides). Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Faure. G. (1986) Principles of Isotope Geology. John Wiley. New York. 589 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Franchi. I.A., Akagi. T. and Pillinger, C.T. (1992) Laser fluorination of meteorites — small sample analysis of δ17O and δ18O(abstract). Meteoritics, 27, 222.Google Scholar
  20. Franchi. I.A., Boyd. S.R., Wright, I.P. and Pillinger, C.T. (1989) Application of lasers in small-sample stable isotopic analysis, in New Frontiers in Stable Isotopic Research: Laser Probes, Ion Probes, and Small-sample Analysis (eds W.C. Shanks and R.E. Criss). US Geol. Surv. Bull., 1890, 51–9.Google Scholar
  21. Franchi, I.A., Gibson. E.K., Wright, I.P. and Pillinger, C.T. (1985) Nitrogen isotopes by laser probe extraction (abstract). Lunar Planet. Sci., XVI, 248–9, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.Google Scholar
  22. Franchi, I.A., Wright, I.P., Gibson, E.K. and Pillinger, C.T. (1986) The laser microprobe: a technique for extracting carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen from solid samples for isotopic measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 91, D514–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Franchi. I.A., Wright, I.P. and Pillinger, C.T. (1986) Heavy nitrogen in Bencubbin — a lightelement isotopic anomaly in a stony-iron meteorite. Nature, 323, 138–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gardiner, L.R. and Pillinger. C.T. (1979) Static mass spectrometry for the determination of active gases. Anal. Chem., 51, 1230–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giletti. B.J. and Shimizu, N. (1989) Use of the ion microprobe to measure natural abundances of oxygen isotopes in minerals, in New frontiers in stable isotopic research: laser probes, ion probes, and small-sample analysis (eds W.C. Shanks and R.E. Criss), US Geol. Surv. Bull., 1890, 129–36.Google Scholar
  26. Harte. B. and Otter, M. (1992) Carbon isotope measurements on diamonds. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 177–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hervig. R.L., Thomas. R.M. and Williams, P. (1989) Charge neutralization and oxygen isotopic analysis of insulators with the ion microprobe, in New frontiers in stable isotopic research: laser probes, ion probes, and small-sample analysis (eds W.C. Shanks and R.E. Criss). US Geol. Surv. Bull., 1890, 137–43.Google Scholar
  28. Hillenkamp, F., Unsöld, E., Kaufmann, R. and Nitsche, R. (1975) Laser microprobe mass analysis of organic materials. Nature, 256, 119–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoefs, J. (1987) Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 241 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Honig, R.E. and Woolston, J.R. (1963) Laser-induced emission of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms from solid surfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2, 138–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jones, L.M., Taylor, A.R., Winter, D.L. et al. (1986) The use of the laser microprobe for sample preparation in stable isotope mass spectrometry (abstract). Terra Cognita, 6, 263.Google Scholar
  32. Kelley, S.P. and Fallick, A.E. (1990) High precision spatially resolved analysis of δ34S in sulphides using a laser extraction technique. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 883–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kelley, S.P., Fallick, A.E., McConville. P. and Boyce, A.J. (1992) High precision, high spatial resolution analysis of sulfur isotopes by laser combustion of natural sulfide minerals. Scann. Microsc., 6, 129–38.Google Scholar
  34. Kovalev, I.D., Maksimov, G.A., Suchkov, A.I. and Larin, N.V. (1978) Analytical capabilities of laser-probe mass spectrometry. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 27, 101–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krantz, D.E., Williams, D.F. and Jones, D.S. (1987) Ecological and palaeoenvironmental information using stable isotope profiles from living and fossil molluscs. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol., 58, 249–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kyser, T.K. (ed.) (1987) Short Course in Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Low Temperature Fluids. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Handbook. 13, 452 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Lincoln, K.A. (1965) Flash-vaporisation of solid materials for mass spectrometry by intense thermal radiation. Anal. Chem., 37, 541–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McKinney, C.R., McCrea, J.M., Epstein, S. et al. (1950) Improvements in mass spectrometers for the measurement of small differences in isotope abundance ratios. Rev. Sci. Instr., 21, 724–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Macpherson, C., Mattey, D.P. and Harris, J. (1992) Oxygen isotope analysis of microgram quantities of silicate by a laser-fluorination technique: data for syngenetic inclusions in diamond (abstract). V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, May 8–10, 1992, Reston, Virginia, A-67.Google Scholar
  40. Mattey. D.P. and Macpherson. C. (1993) High-precision oxygen isotope microanalysis of ferromagnesian minerals by laser-fluorination. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 105, 305–18.Google Scholar
  41. Mattey. D.P., Macpherson, C.G. and Harris, J. (1992) Oxygen isotope analysis of syngenetic silicate inclusions in diamond by laser microprobe (abstract). EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union. 73, 336.Google Scholar
  42. Megrue. G.H. (1967) Isotopic analysis of rare gases with a laser microprobe. Science, 157, 1555–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Megrue. G.H. (1971) Distribution and origin of helium, neon, and argon isotopes in Apollo 12 samples by in situ analysis with a laser probe mass spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res., 76, 4956–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nier. A.O. (1947) A mass spectrometer for isotope and gas analysis. Rev. Sci. Instr., 18, 398–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Norris. S.J., Brown, P.W. and Pillinger, C.T. (1981) Laser pyrolysis for light element and stable isotope studies (abstract). Meteoritics, 16, 369.Google Scholar
  46. Pillinger. C.T. (1992) New technologies for small sample stable isotope measurement: static vacuum gas source mass spectrometry, laser probes, ion probes and gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 118/119, 477–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Powell. M.D. and Kyser. T.K. (1991) Analysis of δl3C and δ18O in calcite. dolomite, rhodocrosite and siderite using a laser extraction system. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.). 94, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rees. C.E. (1978) Sulphur isotope measurements using SO2 and SF6. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42, 383–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roedder, E. (1984) Fluid Inclusions. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy, 12, 644 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Rumble D. Palin J.M. and Hoering T.C. (1991) Laser fluorination of sulfide minerals with F2 gas. Annual Report to the Director of the Geophysical Laboratory Carnegie Institution Washington 1990–1991 pp. 30–4Google Scholar
  51. Schiffries, C.M. and Rumble, D. (1990) Oxygen isotopic zoning in quartz determined by laser microprobe-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Annual Report to the Director of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution, Washington, 1989-1990, pp. 37–40.Google Scholar
  52. Scott, R.H., Jackson, P.F.S. and Strasheim, A. (1971) Application of laser source mass spectroscopy to analysis of geological material. Nature, 232, 623–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shankai, Z., Conzemius, R.J. and Svec, H.J. (1984) Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in solids by laser mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 56, 382–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sharp, Z.D. (1990) A laser-based microanalytical method for the in situ determination of oxygen isotope ratios of silicates and oxides. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 1353–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sharp, Z.D. (1991) Determination of oxygen diffusion rates in magnetite from natural isotopic variations. Geology, 19, 653–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sharp, Z.D. (1992) In situ laser microprobe techniques for stable isotope analysis. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sharp, Z.D. and O’Neil, J.R. (1989) A laser-based carbon reduction technique for oxygen isotope analysis of silicates and oxides. Annual Report to the Director of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution, Washington, 1988-1989, pp. 72–8.Google Scholar
  58. Smalley, P.C., Maile, C.N., Coleman, M.L. and Rouse, J.E. (1992) LASSIE (laser ablation sampler for stable isotope extraction) applied to carbonate minerals. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geosci.), 101, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smalley, P.C., Stijfhoorn, D.E., Råheim, A. et al. (1989) The laser microprobe and its application to the study of C and O isotopes in calcite and aragonite. Sediment. Geol., 65, 211–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sommer, M.A., Yonover, R.N., Bourcier, W.L. and Gibson, E.K. (1985) Determination of H2O and CO2 concentrations in fluid inclusions in minerals using laser decrepitation and capacitance manometer analysis. Anal. Chem., 57, 449–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tsui, T.-F. and Holland, H.D. (1979) The analysis of fluid inclusions by laser microprobe. Econ. Geol., 74, 1647–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Valley, J.W., Taylor, H.P. and O’Neil, J.R. (eds) (1986) Stable Isotopes in High Temperature Geological Processes Rev. Mineral., 16, Mineralogical Society of America, 570Google Scholar
  63. Vanderborgh, N.E. (1977) Laser induced pyrolysis techniques, in Analytical Pyrolysis (eds C.E.R. Jones and C.A. Cramers), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 235–48.Google Scholar
  64. Wefer, G. and Killingley, J.S. (1980) Growth histories of strombid snails from Bermuda recorded in their 18O and 13C profiles. Marine Biol., 60, 129–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wright, I.P. (1984) δ13C measurements of smaller samples. Trends Anal. Chem., 3, 210–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zinner, E. (1989) Isotopic measurements with the ion microprobe, in New frontiers in stable isotopic research: laser probes, ion probes, and small-sample analysis (eds W.C. Shanks and R.E. Criss), US Geol. Surv. Bull., 1890, 145–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mineralogical Society 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian P. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.Planetary Sciences Unit, Department of Earth SciencesThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations