Molecular phenotyping of head and neck cancer

  • Dong M. Shin
  • Michael A. Tainsky
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 74)


Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck accounts for 5% of all cancers in the United States, where approximately 45,000 new cases of head and neck cancer were expected in 1992 [1]. However, the estimated international incidence of cancers of this region is significantly higher than in the United States. For example, nasopharyngeal carcinomas occur 25 times more frequently in Southern China than in the Caucasian population [2], and India records 30% of all its cancers to be in the oropharyngeal region [3].


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Squamous Cell Carcinoma Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T. Cancer statistics, 1992. CA Cancer J Clin 41:19–38, 1992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pillai R, Reddiar KS, Balaram P. Oncogene expression and oral cancer. J Surg Oncol 47:102–108, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mehta FS, Gupta MB, Pindborg JJ, Bhonsle RB, Jalnawalla PN, Sinor PN. An intervention study of oral cancer and precancer in rural Indian population: A preliminary report. Bull World Health Org 60:441–468, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fraumeni JF. Respiratory carcinogenesis: An epidemiologic appraisal. J Natl Cancer Inst 55:1039–1046, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Decker J, Goldstein JC. Risk factors in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 306:1151–1155, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Binnie WH, Rankin KV, Mackenzie IC. Etiology of squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 12:11–29, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller AB. Trends in cancer mortality and epidemiology. Cancer 51:2413–2418, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bollag W. Vitamin A and retinoids from nutrition to pharmacotherapy in dermatology and oncology. Lancet 1:860–863, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goodman DS. Vitamin A and retinoids in health and disease. N Engl J Med 310:1023–1031, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bishop JM. Retroviruses. Ann Rev Biochem 47:35–88, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang E, Furth M, Scolnick E, Lowy D. Tumorigenic transformation of mammalian cells by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey Murine Sarcoma Virus. Nature 297:479–483, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parada LF, Tabin CJ, Shih C, Weinberg RA. Human EJ bladder carcinoma oncogene is a homologue of Harvey Sarcoma Virus ras gene. Nature 297:474–478, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Santos E, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA, Pulciani S, Barbacid M. T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene is an activated form of the normal human homologue of BALB- and Harvey-MSV transforming gene. Nature 298:343–345, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levine AS. Fruit flies, yeast, and oncogene: Developmental biology and cancer research come together. Med Pediatr Oncol 12:357–374, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Muller R, Slamon DJ, Tremblay JM, Cline MJ, Verma IM. Differential expression and postnatal development of the mouse. Nature 299:640–644, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goyette M, Petropoulos CJ, Shank PR, Fanso N. Expression of a cellular oncogene during liver regeneration. Science 219:510–512, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klein G, Klein E. Evolution of tumors and the impact of molecular oncology. Nature 315:190–195, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Waterfield MD, Scare GT, Whittle N. Platelet derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28 of Simian sarcoma virus. Nature 304:35–39, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Downward J, Yarden Y, Mayes E. Close similarity of epidermal growth factor receptor and v-erb B oncogene protein sequence. Nature 137:521–527, 1984.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sherr CJ, Rettenmier CW, Sacca R, Roussel ME, Look AT, Stanley ER. The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to the mononulcear phagocyte growth factor, CSF-1. Cell 41:665–676, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Donner P, Freiser-Wilke I, Moelling K. Nuclear localization and DNA binding of the transforming gene product of avian myelocytomatosis virus. Nature 296:262–264, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelly K, Cochran BH, Stiles CS, Leder P. Cell-specific regulation of the c-myc gene by lymphocyte mitogen and platelet derived growth factor. Cell 35:603–610, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kruijer W, Cooper JA, Hunter T, Verma IM. Platelet derived growth factor induces rapid but transient expression of the c-fos gene and protein. Nature 312:711–720, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Quantin B, Breathnach R. Epidermal growth factor stimulates transcription of the c-jun proto-oncogene in rat fibroblasts. Nature 334:538–539, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sagata N, Daar J, Oskarsson M, Shonulter SD, Vande Wood GF. The product of the mos proto-oncogene as a candidate “initiator” for oocyte maturation. Science 245:643–646, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eagle H. Propagation in a fluid medium of human epidermoid carcinoma strain KB. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 89:362–364, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moore AE, Sabachewsky L, Toolan HW. Culture characteristics of four permanent lines of human cancer cells. Cancer Res 15:598–602, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shklar G. Experimental pathology of oral cancer. In: G Shklar, ed. Oral Cancer. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1988, pp 41–54.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harvey GR. Synthesis of the dihydrodiol and diol epoxide metabolites of carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons. In: GR Harvey, ed. Polycyclic Hydrocarbon and Carcinogenesis. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1985, pp 36–62.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Odukoya D, Schwartz J, Weichselbaum R, Shklar G. An epidermoid carcinoma cell line derived from hamster 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced oral buccal pouch tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 71:1253–1264, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Silverman S, Shklar G. The effect of a carcinogen (DMBA) applied to the hamster cheek pouch in combination with croton oil. Oral Surg 16:1344–1355, 1963.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rowe NH, Gorlin RJ. The effect of vitamin A deficiency upon experimental carcinogenesis. J Dent Res 38:72–83, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santis H, Shklar G, Chauncey HH. Histochemistry of experimentally induced leukoplakia and carcinoma of the hamster buccal pouch. Oral Surg 17:307–318, 1964.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shklar G. Metabolic characteristics of experimental hamster pouch carcinomas. Oral Surg 20:336–339, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tsiklakis K, Papadakou A, Angelopoulos AP. The therapeutic effect of an aromatic retinoid (RO-109359) on hamster buccal pouch carcinomas. Oral Surg 64:327–332, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Suda D, Schwartz J, Shklar G. Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta-carotene. Carcinogenesis 7:711–715, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shwartz J, Shklar G. Regression of experimental oral carcinogenesis by local injection of beta-carotene and canthaxanthine. Nutr Cancer 11:35–40, 1988.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shklar G. Oral mucosal carcinogenesis in hamster: Inhibition by vitamin E. J Natl Cancer Inst 68:791–799, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Trickier D, Shklar G. Prevention by vitamin E of experimental oral carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 78:165–169, 1989.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schwartz J, Shklar G, Reid S, Trickler D. Prevention of oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae. Nutr Cancer 11:127–134, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Downward J, Yarden Y, Mayes E, Scrace G, Toffy N, Stockwell P, et al. Close similarity of epidermal growth factor receptor and V-erb-B oncogene protein sequences. Nature 307:521–527, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hunter T. The epidermal growth factor receptor gene and its products. Nature 311:414–416, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ullrich A, Coussens L, Hayflick JS, Dull TJ, Gray A, Tarn AW, et al. Human epidermal growth factor receptor cDNA sequence and aberrant expression of the amplified gene in A431 human carcinoma cells. Nature 309:418–425, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Libermann TA, Razon N, Bartal AD, Yarden Y, Schlessinger J, Soreq H. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors. Cancer Res 44:753–760, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Merlino GT, Xu Y-H, Ishii S, Clark AJL, Semba K, Toyoshima K, et al. Amplification and enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in A431 human carcinoma cells. Science 224:417–419, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cowley G, Smith JA, Gusterson B, Hendler F, Ozanne B. The amount of EGF receptor is elevated in squamous cell carcinomas. In: JL Arnold, GF van de Woode, WC Topp, JD Watson, eds. Cancer Cells I. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1984, pp 5–10.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yamamoto T, Kamata N, Kawano H, Shimizu S, Kuroki T, Toyoshima K, et al. High incidence of amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in human squamous carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res 46:414–416, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wong DTW, Biswas DK. Activation of the C-erb B1 oncogene during DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster cheek pouch. J Dent Res 65:221, 1986.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wong DTW. Amplification of the C-erb B1 oncogene in chemically-induced oral carcinomas. Carcinogenesis 8:1963–1965, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wong DTW, Biswas DK. Expression of C-erb B proto-oncogene during dimethyl-benzanthracene-induced tumorigenesis in hamster cheek pouch. Oncogene 2:67–72, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wong DTW, Gallagher GT, Gertz R, Chang ALC, Shklar G. Transforming growth factor-α in chemically transformed hamster oral keratinocytes. Cancer Res 48:3130–3134, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shin DM, Gimenez IB, Lee JS, Nishioka K, Wargovich MJ, Thacher S, et al. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, polyamine levels, ornithine decarboxylase activity, micronuclei, and transglutaminase I in a 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model. Cancer Res 50:2505–2510, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Land H, Chen AC, Morgenstern JP, Parada LF, Weinberg RA. Behavior of myc and ras oncogenes in transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol 6:1917–1925, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee WM, Schwab M, Westaway D, Varmus H. Augmented expression of normal c-myc is sufficient for cotransformation of rat embryo cells with a mutant ras gene. Mol Cell Biol 5:3345–3356, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kelly K, Cochran BH, Stiles CD, Leder P. Cell-specific regulation of the c-myc gene by lymphocyte mitogens and platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 35:603–610, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yancopoulos GD, Nisen PD, Tesfaye A, Kohl NE, Goldfarb MP, Alt FW. N-myc can cooperate with ras to transform normal cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5455–5459, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ruley HE. Adenovirus early region 1A enables viral and cellular transforming genes to transform primary cells in culture. Nature 304:602–606, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Balmain A, Pragneil IB. Mouse skin carcinomas induced in vivo by chemical carcinogens have a transforming Harvey-ras oncogene. Nature 303:72–74, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Quintanilla M, Brown K, Ramsden M, Balmain A. Carcinogen-specific mutation and amplification of Ha-ras during mouse skin carcinogenesis. Nature 322:78–80, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bizub D, Wood AW, Skalka AW. Mutagenesis of the Ha-ras oncogene in mouse skin tumors induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:6048–6052, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Barbacid M. ras genes. Annu Rev Biochem 56:779–827, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leon J, Kamino H, Steinberg JJ, Pellicer A. H-ras activation in benign and self-regressing skin tumors (keratoacanthomas) in both human and animal model systems. Mol Cell Biol 8:786–793, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bishop J. Cellular oncogenes and retroviruses. Annu Rev Biochem 52:301–354, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brown K, Quintanilla M, Ramsden M, Kerr IB, Young S, Balmain A. V-ras genes from Harvey and BALB murine sarcoma viruses can act as inhibitors of two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cell 46:447–456, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Husain Z, Fei Y, Roy S, Solt DB, Polverini PJ, Biswas DK. Sequential expression and cooperative interaction of c-Ha-ras and c-erb B genes in in vivo chemical carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1264–1268, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wong DTW, Gertz R, Chow P, Chang ALC, McBride J, Chiang T et al. Detection of Ki-ras messenger RNA in normal and chemically transformed hamster oral keratinocytes. Cancer Res 49:4562–4567, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Campisi J, Gray HE, Pardee AB, Dean M, Soneshein G. Cell control of c-myc but not c-ras expression is lost following chemical transformation. Cell 36:241–247, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Solt DB. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 67:193–199, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Solt DB, Shklar G. Rapid induction of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-rich intraepithelial clones in DMBA-treated hamster buccal pouch. Cancer Res 42:285–291, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Odajima T, Solt DB, Solt LC. Persistence of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 44:2062–2067, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Murase N, Fukui S, Mori M. Heterogeneity of keratin distribution in the oral mucosa and skin of mammals as determined using monoclonal antibodies. Histochem J 85:265–276, 1986.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tatemoto Y, Fukui S, Oosumi H, Horike H, Mori M. Expression of keratins during experimentally induced carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch visualized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Histochemistry 86:445–452, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gimenez-Conti IB, Shin DM, Bianchi AB, Roop DR, Hong WK, Conti CJ, et al. Changes in keratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 50:4441–4445, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fugita J, Yoshida O, Tusas Y, Rhim JS, Hatamaka M, Aaronson SA. Ha-ras oncogenes are activated by somatic alterations in human urinary tract tumors. Nature 309:464–466, 1984.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Eva A, Tronick SR, Gol RA, Pierce JH, Aaronson SA. Transforming genes of human hematopoietic tumors: Frequent detection of ras-related oncogenes whose activation appears to be independent of tumor phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4926–4930, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Santos E, Martin-Zanca D, Reddy EP, Pierotti MA, Delia Porta G, Barbacid MJ. Malignant activation of K-ras oncogene in lung carcinoma, but not in normal tissue of the same patients. Science 223:661–668, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shih C, Shelo BF, Goldfarb MP, Dannenberg A, Weinberg RA. Passage of phenotypes of chemically transformed cells via transfection of DNA and chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5714–5718, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Der CJ, Krontris TG, Cooper GM. Transforming genes of human bladder and lung carcinoma cell lines are homologous to the ras genes of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3637–3640, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Der CJ, Cooper GM. Altered gene products are associated with activation of cellular ABSK genes in human lung and colon carcinomas. Cell 32:201–208, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Goldfarb MP, Shimizn K, Perucho M, Wigler MH. Isolation and preliminary characterization of a human transforming gene from T24 bladder carcinoma cells. Nature 296:405–409, 1982.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Papageorge A, Lowy D, Scolnick E. Comparative biochemical properties of P21 ras molecules coded for by viral and cellular ras genes. J Virol 44:509–519, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thor A, Ohuchi N, Horan Hand P, Callahan R, Weeks MO, Liderean R, et al. ras gene alterations and enhanced levels of P21ras expression in a spectrum of benign and malignant human mammary tissue. J Lab Invest 55:603–615, 1986.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bos JL. The ras gene family and human carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 195:255–271, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Reddy EP, Reynolds RK, Santos E, Barbacid M. A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene. Nature 300:149–152, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Taparowsky E, Suard Y, Fasano O, Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Wigler M. Activation of the T24 bladder carcinoma transforming gene is link to a single amino acid change. Nature 300:762–765, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tabin CJ, Bradley SM, Bargmann CI, Weinberg RA, Papageorge AG, Scolnick EM, et al. Mechanism of activation of a human oncogene. Nature 300:143–148, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spandidos DA, Wilkie NM. Malignant transformation of early passage rodent cells by a single mutated human oncogene. Nature 310:469–475, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Slamon DJ, DeKernion JB, Verma IM, Cline MJ. Expression of cellular oncogenes in human malignancies. Science 224:256–262, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Horan-Hand P, Thor A, Wunderlich D, Muraro R, Casruso A, Schlom J. Monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity-detected carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:5227–5231, 1984.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Viola MV, Fromowitz F, Oravez S, Deb S, Schlom J. ras oncogene P21 expression is increased in premalignant lesions and high-grade bladder carcinoma. J Exp Med 161: 1213–1218, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gallick G, Kurzrock R, Kloetzer W, Arlinghaus R, Gutterman J. Expression of P21 ras in fresh primary and metastatic human colorectal tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:1795–1799, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vousden KH, Marshall CJ. Three different activated ras genes in mouse tumors; evidence of oncogene activation during progression of a mouse lymphoma. EMBO J 3:913–917, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Collard JG, Schnijven JF, Roos E. Invasive and metastatic potential induced by ras-transfection into mouse BW5147 T-lymphoma cells. Cancer Res 47:754–759, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Riou G. Proto-oncogenes and prognosis in early carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer Surv 7:441, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Riou G, Barrois M, Sheng FM. Somatic deletions and mutations of Ha-ras gene in human cervical cancers. Oncogene 3:329–333, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Capon DJ, Chen EY, Levinson AD, Seeburg PH, Goeddel et al. Complete nucleotide sequences of the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene and its normal homologue. Nature 302:33–37, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nordenskjold M, Cavence WK. Genetics and the etiology of solid tumors. In: VT DeVita Jr, S Hellman, SA Rosenberg, eds. Important Advances in Oncology. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1988, pp 83.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jiang W, Kahn SM, Guillem JG, Lu SH, Weinstein IB. Rapid detection of ras oncogenes in human tumors: Application to colon, esophageal, and gastric cancer. Oncogene 4:923–928, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Azuma M, Furumoto N, Kawamata H, Yoshida H, Yanagawa T, Yura Y, et al. The relation of ras oncogene product P21 expression to clinicopathological status criteria and clinical outcome in squamous cell head and neck cancer. The Cancer J 1:375–380, 1987.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Furth ME, Davis LJ, Flenrdelys B, Scolnick EM. Monoclonal antibodies to the P21 products of the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus and of the cellular ras gene family. J Virol 43:294–304, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sachs PG, Parnes SM, Gallick GE, Mansouri Z, Lichtner R, Satya-Prakash KL, et al. Establishment and characterization of two new squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from tumors of head and neck. Cancer Res 48:2858–2866, 1988.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sheng ZM, Barrois M, Klijanienko J, Micheau C, Richard JM, Riou G. Analysis of the c-Ha-ras-1 gene for deletion, mutation, amplification, and expression in lymph node metastases of human head and neck carcinomas. Br J Cancer 62:398–404, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rumsby G, Carter RL, Gusterson BA. Low incidence of ras oncogene activation in human squamous cell carcinomas. Br J Cancer 61:365–368, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Field JK, Lamothe A, Spandidos DA. Clinical relevance of oncogene expression in head and neck tumors. Anticancer Res 6:595–600, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sakamoto H, Mori M, Taira M, Yoshida T, Matsukawa S, Shimizu K, et al. Transforming gene from human stomach cancers and a noncancerous portion of stomach mucosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:3997–4001, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yoshida MC, Wada M, Satoh H, Yoshida T, Sakamoto H, Myagawa K, et al. Human HST2 (HSTF1) gene maps to chromosome band 11q13 and coamplifies with the int-2 gene in human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:4861–4864, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Taira M, Yoshida T, Myagawa K, Sakamoto H, Terada M, Sugimura T. CDNA sequence of human transforming gene hst and identification of the coding squamous required for transforming activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2980–2984, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yoshida T, Miyagawa K, Odagiri H, Sakamoto H, Little PFR, Terada M, et al. Genomic sequence of hst, a transforming gene encoding a protein homologous to fibroblast growth factor and the int-2-encoded protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:7305–7309, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Miyagawa K, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T, Yamashita Y, Mitsui Y, Furusawa M, et al. Hst-1 transforming protein: Expression in silkworm cells and characterization as a novel heparin binding growth factor. Oncogene 3:383–389, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Casey G, Smith R, McGilliuray D, Peters G, Dickson C. Characterization and chromosome assignment of the human homolog of int-2, a potential protooncogene. Mol Cell Biol 6:502–510, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tsutsumi M, Sakamoto H, Yoshida T, Kakizoe T, Koiso K, Sugimura T, et al. Coamplification of the hst-1 and int-2 genes in human cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res 79:428–432, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tsuda Y, Tahara E, Kajiyama G, Sakamoto H, Terada M, Sugimora T. High incidence of coamplification of hst-1 and int-2 genes in human esophageal carcinomas. Cancer Res 49:5505–5508, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Adelaide J, Matter MG, Maries I, Raybaund F, Planche J, Lapeyriere OD, et al. Chromosomal localization of the hst oncogene and its coamplification with the int-2 oncogene in human melanoma. Oncogene 2:413–416, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hatada I, Tokino T, Ochiya T, Matsubara K. Coamplification of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA and transforming gene hst-1 in a hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene 3:537–540, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ali IU, Merlo G, Callahan R, Liderean R. The amplification unit of chromosome 11q13 in aggressive primary breast tumors entails the bcl-1, int-2 and hst loci. Oncogene 4:89–92, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Somers KD, Cartwright SL, Schechter GL. Amplification of the int-2 gene in human head and neck squamous carcinomas. Oncogene 5:915–920, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zhou DJ, Casey G, Cline MJ. Amplification of human int-2 in breast cancers and squamous carcinomas. Oncogene 2:279–282, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cole MD. The myc oncogene: Its role in transformation and differentiation. Annu Rev Genet 20:361–384, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sheiness DK, Bishop JM. DNA and RNA from uninfected vertebrate cells containing nucleotide sequences related to the putative transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus. J Virol 31:514–518, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sheiness DK, Hughes SH, Varmus HE, Stubblefield E, Bishop JM. The vertebrate homolog of the putative transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus: Characteristics of the DNA locus and its RNA transcript. Virology 105:415–424, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schwab M, Alitalo K, Klempnauer KH, Varmus HE, Bishop JM, Gilbert F, et al. Amplified DNA with limited homology to myc cellular oncogene is shared by human neuroblastoma cell lines and a neuroblastoma tumor. Nature 305:245–248, 1988.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kohl NE, Gee CE, Alt FW. Activated expression of the N-myc gene in human neuroblastomas and related tumors. Science 226:1335–1337, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nau MM, Brooks BJ, Battey J, Sausville E, Gazda AF, Kirsch IR, et al. L-myc, a new myc-related gene amplified and expressed in human small cell lung cancer. Nature 318:69–73, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leder P, Battey J, Lenoir C, Moulding C, Murphy W, Potter H, et al. Translocations among antibody genes in human cancer. Science 222:765–771, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Croce CM, Nowell P. Molecular basis of human B-cell neoplasia. Blood 65:1–7, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Peschle C, Mavillo F, Sposi N, Giampaolo A, Care A, Bottero L, et al. Translocation and rearrangement of c-myc into immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain locus in primary cells from acute lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:5514–5518, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lee WH, Murphee AL, Benedict WF. Expression and amplification of the N-myc gene in primary retinoblastoma. Nature 309:458–460, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Seeger R, Brodeur G, Sather H, Dalton A, Siegel S, Wong K, et al. Association of multiple copies of the N-myc oncogene with rapid progression of neuroblastomas. N Engl J Med 313:1111–1119, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Brodeur G, Seeger R, Schwab M, Varmus H, Bishop JM. Amplification of N-myc in untreated human neuroblastomas correlates with advanced disease stage. Science 224:1121–1124, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Johnson BE, Ihde DC, Makuch RW, Gazdar AF, Carney DN, Oie H, et al. myc family oncogene amplification in tumor cell lines established from small cell lung cancer patients and its relationship to clinical status and course. J Clin Invest 79:1629–1634, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Field JK, Spandidos DA, Stell PM, Vaughan ED, Evan GI, Moore JP. Elevated expression of the c-myc oncoprotein correlates with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oncogene 4:1463–1468, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sarnath D, Panchal R, Nair R, Mehta AR, Sanghavi V, Sumegi J, et al. Oncogene amplification in squamous cell cancer of the lung of the oral cavity. Jpn J Cancer Res 80:430–437, 1989.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gusterson B, Cowley G, Smith JA, Ozanne B. Cellular localization of human epidermal growth factor receptor. Cell Biol Int Rep 8:659–667, 1984.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Filmus J, Pollak MN, Cailleau R, Buick RM. MDA-468, a human breast cancer cell line with a high number of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, has an amplified EGF receptor gene and is growth inhibited by EGF. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 128:898–905, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fitzpatrick SL, Brightwell J, Wittlift JL, Barrows GH, Shultz GS. Epidermal growth factor binding by breast biopsies and relationship to estrogen receptor and progestin receptor levels. Cancer Res 44:3448–3453, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kamata N, Chida K, Rikimaru K, Horikoshi M, Enomoto S, Kuroki T. Growth inhibitory effects of epidermal growth factor and overexpression of its receptors on human squamous cell carcinomas in culture. Cancer Res 46:1648–1653, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Cohen S, Ushiro H, Stoscheck C, Gill GN. Regulation of the epidermal growth factor by phosphorylation. J Cell Biochem 29:195–208, 1985.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cohen S, Carpenter G, King L. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein kinase interactions. J Biol Chem 255:4834–4842, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ushiro H, Cohen S. Identification of phosphotyrosine as a product of epidermal growth factor-activated protein kinase in A431 cell membranes. J Biol Chem 255:8353–8365, 1980.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Yamamoto T, Nishida T, Miyajima M, Kawai S, Ooi T, Toyoshima K. The erb B gene of avian erythoblastosis virus is a member of the src gene family. Cell 35:71–78, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Maxwell SA, Sacks PG, Gutterman JU, Gallick GE. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase activity in human cell lines established from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. Cancer Res 49:1130–1137, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Santini J, Formento JL, Francoual M, Milano G, Schneider M, Dassonville O, et al. Characterization, quantification, and potential clinical value of the epidermal growth factor receptor in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Head Neck 13:132–139, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kearsley JH, Furlong KL, Cooke RA, Waters MJ. An immunohistochemical assessment of cellular proliferation markers in head and neck squamous cell cancers. Br J Cancer 61:821–827, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Weichselbaum RR, Dunphy EJ, Beckett MA, Tybor AG, Moran WJ, Goldman ME, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification and expression in head and neck cancer cell lines. Head Neck 11:437–442, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lane DP, Crawford LV. Tantigen is bound to a host protein in SV40-transformed cells. Nature 278:261–263, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Crawford LV, Pim DC, Gurney EG, Goodfellow P, Taylor-Papadimitriou J. Detection of a common feature in several human tumor cell lines — a 53,000-dalton protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:41–45, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Miller C, Mohandas T, Wolf D, Prokocimer M, Rotter V, Koeffler HP. Human p53 gene localized to the short arm of chromosome 17. Nature 319:783–784, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Isobe M, Emanuel BS, Givol D, Oren M, Croce CM. Localization of gene for human p53 tumor antigen to band 17pl3. Nature 320:84–86, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Finlay CA, Hinds PW, Levine AJ. The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation. Cell 57:1083–1093, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Eliyahu D, Michalovitz D, Eliyahu S, Pinhasi-Kimhi O, Oren M. Wild-type p53 can inhibit oncogene-mediated focus formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:8763–8767, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Baker SJ, Fearon ER, Nigro JM, Hamilton SR, Preisinger AC, Jessup JM, et al. Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Science 244:217–221, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Soussi T, Caron DE, Fromentel C, Mechali M, Hay P, Kress M. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA from xenopus lavis coding for a protein homologous to human and murine p53. Oncogene 1:71–78, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Soussi T, Begue A, Kress M, Stehelin D, May P. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the chicken p53 nuclear oncoprotein. Nucleic Acids Res 16:11383, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wolf D, Laver-Rudich Z, Rotter V. In vitro expression of human p53 cDNA clones and characterization of the cloned human p53 gene. Mol Cell Biol 5:1887–1893, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Harlow E, Williamson NM, Ralston R, Halfman DM, Adams TE. Molecular cloning and in vitro expression of a cDNA clone for human cellular tumor antigen p53. Mol Cell Biol 5:1601–1610, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mercer WE, Nelson D, DeLeo AB, Old IJ, Baserga R. Microinjection of monoclonal antibody to protein p53 inhibits serum-induced DNA synthesis in 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6309–6312, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Reich NC, Levine AJ. Growth regulation of a cellular tumor antigen, p53, in nontrans-formed cells. Nature 308:199–201, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Shohat O, Greenberg M, Reisman D, Oren M, Rotter V. Inhibition of cell growth mediated by plasmids encoding p53 anti-sense. Oncogene 1:277–281, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Eliyahu D, Goldfinger N, Pinhasi-Kimhi O, Shaulsky G, Akurnik Y, Arai N, et al. Meth A fibrosarcoma cells express two transforming mutant p53 species. Oncogene 3:313–321, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Finlay CA, Hinds PW, Tan TH, Eliyahu D, Oren M, Levine AJ. Activating mutations for transformation by p53 produce a gene product that forms an hsc 70-p53 complex with an altered half-life. Mol Cell Biol 8:531–539, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cavenee WK, Hastie ND, Stanbridge EJ, eds. Current Communications in Molecular Biology: Recessive Oncogenes and Tumor Suppression. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Atkin NB, Baker MC. Chromosome 17p loss in carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 37:229–233, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yano T, Linehan M, Anglard P, Lerman MI, Daniel LN, Stein CA, et al. Genetic changes in human adrenocortical carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 81:518–523, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Tsai CM, Gazdar AF, Venzon DJ, Steinberg SM, Dedrick RI, Mulshine JL, et al. Lack of in vitro synergy between etoposide and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II). Cancer Res 49:2390–2397, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, Vogelstein B. Clonal analysis of human colorectal tumors. Science 238:193–197, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Monpezat JPH, Delattre O, Bernard A, Grunwald D, Remvikos Y, Muleris M, et al. Loss of alleles on chromosome 18 and on the short arm of chromosome 17 in polyploid colorectal carcinomas. Int J Cancer 41:404–408, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Herskowitz I. Functional inactivation of genes by dominant negative mutations. Nature 329:219–222, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Eliyahu D, Michalovitz D, Eliyahu S, Pinhasi-Kimhi O, Oren M. Wild-type p53 can inhibit oncogene-mediated focus formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:8763–8767, 1987.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kraiss S, Quaiser A, Oren M, Montenarch M. Oligomerization of oncoprotein p53. J Virol 62:4737–4744, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lane DP, Benchimol S. p53: Oncogene or anti-oncogene? Genes Dev 4:1–8, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Iggo R, Gatter K, Bartek J, Lane D, Harris AL. Increased expression of mutant forms of p53 oncogene in primary lung cancer. Lancet 335:675–679, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Chiba I, Takehashi T, Nau M, D’Amico D, Curiel DT, Mitsudomi T, et al. Mutations in the p53 gene are frequent in primary, resected non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene 5:1603–1610, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gusterson BA, Anbazhagan R, Warren W, Midgely C, Lane DP, Ohare M, et al. Expression of p53 in premalignant and malignant squamous epithelium. Oncogene 6: 1785–1789, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Chiao PJ, Shin DM, Sacks PG, Hong WK, Tainsky MA. Elevated expression of the ribosomal protein S2 gene in human tumors. Mol Carcinogen 5:219–231, 1992.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Chester KA, Robon L, Begent HJR, Talbot IC, Pringle HJ, Primrose L, et al. Identification of a human ribosomal protein mRNA with increased expression in colorectal tumors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1009:297–300, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Davies MS, Henney A, Ward HJW, Craig KR. Characterisation of an mRNA encoding a human ribosomal protein homologous to the yeast L44 ribosomal protein. Gene 45:183–191, 1984.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pogue-Geile K, Geiser JR, Shu M, Miller C, Wool IG, Meisler AI, et al. Ribosomal protein genes are overexpressed in human colorectal cancer: Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the human S3 ribosomal protein. Mol Cell Biol 11:3842–3849, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong M. Shin
  • Michael A. Tainsky

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations