Regulation of Macrophage Activation and HIV Replication
Part of the
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
book series (AEMB, volume 374)
In normal immune responses, macrophages play a key role in the host’s defence system combating disease, clearing foreign antigens and protecting against invading microrganisms. The ability of the macrophage (mØ) to mediate effective immune responses is associated with its capacity to respond and control its activation upon encountering the appropriate exogenous or endogenous signal. Activation is defined by the stimulus which changes or predisposes to changes in cellular activity, while activation potential is the ability to undergo activation. Since immune activation involves all aspects of immunological responses, we will differentiate between two general types of cytokine-orientated activation when discussing macrophages: pro-inflammatory and immuno-regulatory. Pro-inflammatory activation refers to the state of immunological “alarm” mediated by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and chemokines, while immuno-regulatory activation refers to responses mediated by IFNs, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13. Although discussed separately, these types of activation are not mutually exclusive and seldom occur in isolation.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Alveolar Macrophage Kupffer Cell Macrophage Activation
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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