In Vivo Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in Hepatic Encephalopathy

  • R. A. F. M. Chamuleau
  • B. A. P. M. Vogels
  • D. K. Bosman
  • W. M. M. J. Bovée
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 368)


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) of the living brain have recently been applied during the clinical picture of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) both in patients and experimental animals.


Cerebral Cortex Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Hepatic Encephalopathy High Energy Phosphate Glutamine Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Prichard, J.W., 1992, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain, Clin. Chim. Acta 206:115-123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behar, K.L., 1993, Cerebral metabolic studies in vivo by combined 1H/31P and 1H/13C NMR spectroscopic methods, Acta Neurochir. Suppl 57:9-20.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chamuleau, R.A.F.M., Bosman, D.K., Bovée, W.M.M.J., Luyten, P.R., and den Hollander, J.A., 1991, What the clinician can learn from MR glutamine/glutamate assays, NMR in biomedicine. 4:103-108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Michaelis, T., Merboldt, K.M., Bruhn, H., Hänicke, W., Frahm, J., 1993, Absolute concentrations of metabolites in the adult human brain in vivo: quantification of localized proton MR spectra, Radiology 187:219-227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jessy, J., DeJoseph, M.R., Hawkins, R.A., 1991, Hyperammonemia depresses glucose consumption throughout the brain, Biochem. J. 277:693-696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hilgier, W., Benveniste, H., Diemer, N.H., Albrecht, J., 1991, Decreased glucose uitilization in discrete brain regions of rat in thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy as measured with 3H-deoxyglucose, Acta Neurol. Scand. 83:353-355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meijer, A.J., Lamers, W.H., Chamuleau, R.A.F.M., 1990, Nitrogen metabolism and ornithine cycle function, Physiol. Rev. 70:701-748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooper, A.J.L., and Plum, F., 1987, Biochemistry and physiology of brain ammonia, Physiol.Rev., 67:440-519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takahashi, H., Koehler, R.C., Brusilow, S.W., Traystman, R.J., 1991, Inhibition of brain glutamine accumulation prevents edema in hyperammonemic rats, Am. J. Physiol. 261: H825-H829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hawkins, R.A., Jessy, J., Mans, A.M., DeJoseph, M.R., 1993, Effect of reducing brain glutamine synthesis on metabolic symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, J. of Neurochemistry, 60:1000-1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanamori, K., Parivar, F., and Ross, B.D., 1993, A 15N NMR study of in vivo cerebral glutamine synthesis in hyperammonemic rats, NMR in Biomedicine 6:21-26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bovée, W.M.M.J., van Dijk, J., Slotboom, H., Bosman, D.K., and Chamuleau, R.A.F.M., 1993,In vivo proton NMR of the brain, in: Surviving Hypoxia Ed. P.W. Hochachka, P.L. Lutz et al, CRC Press, London, Tokyo, p.65-73.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bosman, D.K., Deutz, N.E.P., de Graaf, A.A., v.d. Hulst, R.W.N., van Eijk, H.M.H., Bovée,W.M.M.J., Maas, M.A.W., Jörning, G.G.A., and Chamuleau, R.A.F.M., 1990, Changes in brain metabolism during hyperammonemia and acute liver failure: results of a comparative 1H-NMR spectroscopy and biochemical investigation, Hepatology 12,2:281-290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hindfelt, B., Plum F., and Duffy, T.E., 1977, Effect of acute ammonia intoxication on cerebral metabolism in rats with portacaval shunts, J. Clin. Invest. 59:386-396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fitzpatrick, S.M., Behar, K.L., and Shulman, R.G., 1989, In vivo NMR spectroscopic studies of cerebral metabolism in rats after portal-caval shunting, in: Hepatic Encephalopathy Ed:R.F.Butterworth and G. Pomier Layrargues, Human Press Clifton, New Jersey: 177-187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deutz, N.E.P., Chamuleau, R.A.F.M., de Graaf, A.A., Bovée, W.M.M.J., and de Beer, R.,1988, In vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy of the rat cerebral cortex during acute hepatic encephalopathy, NMR in Biomedicine 1,101:1-106.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bottomley, P.A., 1984, Selective volume method for performing localized NMR spectroscopy,U.S. Patent 4480228.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kreis, R., Ross, B.D., Farrow, N.A., Ackerman, Zvi, 1992, Metabolic disorders of the brain in chronic hepatic encephalopathy detected with H-1 MR spectroscopy, Radiology, 182:19-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kreis, R., Farrow, N.A., and Ross, B.D., 1990, Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Lancet. 336:635-636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brunberg, J.A., Kanal, E., Hirsch, W., and van Thiel, D.H., 1991, Chronic acquired hepatic failure: MR imaging of the brain at 1.5 T, AJR 157:1111-1116.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pujol, A., Pujol, J., Graus, F., et al., 1993, Hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI in cirrhotic patients is associated with severety of liver failure, Neurology, 43:65-69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zeneroli, M.L., Cioni, G., Crisi, G., Vezelli, C, and Ventura, E., 1991, Globus pallidus alterations and brain atrophy in liver cirrhosis patients with encephalopathy: a MR imaging study, Magn. Reson. Imaging 9:295-302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ferenci, P., 1991, Hepatic Encephalopathy, in: Oxford textbook of Clinical Hepatology, vol 1,Ed: N. Mclntyre, J.P. Benhamou, J. Bircher, M. Rizzetto, J. Rodes, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Tokio, p.473-483.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van den Bos, A., 1982, Parameter estimation, in: Handbook of Measurement Science,Seidenham, P.H., Ed., Vol.l, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p.331.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. F. M. Chamuleau
    • 1
  • B. A. P. M. Vogels
    • 1
  • D. K. Bosman
    • 1
  • W. M. M. J. Bovée
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Experimental Internal Medicine, G2-130Academic Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations