Neuromodulation and Motor Pattern Generation in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System

  • P. S. Katz

Summary

Neuromodulation is critically important to the functioning of nervous systems, yet it is not included in most descriptions of neuronal circuits. Neuromodulation has been extensively studied in the stomatogastric nervous system of decapod Crustacea. Here it has been shown that neuromodulatory inputs to central pattern generator circuits play four key roles. 1) They can initiate and maintain rhythmic neuronal activity. 2) They allow a single, anatomically defined circuit to produce many different outputs. 3) They can cause cells to switch their activity from one neuronal circuit to another. 4) They can reconfigure entire networks so that previously independent circuits can function together in a coordinated fashion. Thus, the classical synaptic connections of a neuronal circuit are not enough to explain the behavioural output of that circuit; neuromodulation can alter the output by affecting cellular and synaptic properties. This imparts a greater flexibility upon nervous systems than can be attained through simple excitatory/inhibitory interactions.

Keywords

Serotonin Acetylcholine Cholecystokinin FMRFamide Proglumide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Dickinson P.S., Mecsas C. and Marder E. (1990) Neuropeptide fusion of two motor pattern generator circuits Nature 344, 155–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Harris-Warrick R.M. and Marder E. (1991) Modulation of neural networks for behavior. Annual Review of Neuroscience 14, 39–57.Google Scholar
  3. Harris-Warrick R.M., Marder E., Selverston A.I. and Moulins M. (eds) (1992) Dynamic Biological Networks, The stomatogastric nervous system. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  4. Hooper S.L. and Moulins M. (1989) Switching of a neuron from one network to another by sensory induced changes in its membrane properties. Science 244, 1587–1589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Katz P.S., Eigg M.H. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1989) Serotonergic/cholinergic muscle receptor cells in the crab stomatogastric nervous system. I. Identification and characterization of the gastropyloric receptor cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 62, 558–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Katz P.S., Getting P.A. and Frost W.N. (1994) Dynamic Neuromodulation of synaptic strength intrinsic to a central pattern generator circuit. Nature 367, 729–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Katz P.S. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1989) Serotonergic/cholinergic muscle receptor cells in the crab stomatogastric nervous system. II. Rapid nicotinic and prolonged modulatory effects on neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion. Journal of Neurophysiology 62, 571–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Katz P.S. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1990a) Actions of identified neuromodulatory neurons in a simple motor system. Trends in Neuroscience 13, 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Katz P.S. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1990b) Neuromodulation of the crab pyloric central pattern generator by serotonergic/cholinergic proprioceptive afferents. Journal of Neuroscience 10, 1495–1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Katz P.S. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1991) Recruitment of crab gastric mill neurons into the pyloric motor pattern by mechanosensory afferent stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 65, 1442–1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kiehn O. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1992a) Serotonergic stretch receptors induce plateau properties in a crustacean motor neuron by a dual-conductance mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology 68, 484–495.Google Scholar
  12. Kiehn O. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1992b) 5-HT modulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current and calcium-dependent outward current in a crustacean motor neuron. Journal of Neurophysiology 68, 496–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Marder E. (1984) Mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter modulation of neuronal circuits. Trends in Neuroscience 7, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meyrand P., Simmers J. and Moulins M. (1991) Construction of a pattern-generating circuit with neurons of different networks. Nature 351, 60–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meyrand P., Simmers J. and Moulins M. (1994) Dynamic construction of a neural network from multiple pattern generators in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system. Journal of Neuroscience 14, 630–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Turrigiano G.G. and Selverston A.I. (1989) Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator. Journal of Neuroscience 9, 2486–2501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Turrigiano G.G. and Selverston A.I. (1990) A cholecystokinin-like hormone activates a feeding-related neural circuit in lobster. Nature 344, 866–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang B. and Harris-Warrick R.M. (1994) Multiple receptors mediate the modulatory effects of serotonergic neurons in a small neural network. Journal of Experimental Biology 190, 55-77.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. S. Katz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and AnatomyUniversity of Texas Medical SchoolHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations