The Environment of the Mammary Secretory Cell

  • Christopher H. Knight

Abstract

Any discussion of intercellular signalling requires knowledge of the cell types present. In the case of the mammary gland, it quickly becomes apparent that this knowledge must extend to non-cellular components of the environment. Whereas most exocrine glands ‘secrete it and forget it’, the mammary gland retains its product and is, therefore, susceptible to a continuing interaction with that product. So, the stored milk is another important element in the environment which surrounds the secretory cell. This review will consider cells, matrix and milk and the interactions they all have with the secretory epithelial cell.

Keywords

Catheter Lactate Radar Prostaglandin Half Life 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akers, R.M., 1985, Lactogenic hormones: binding sites, mammary growth, secretory cell differentiation and milk biosynthesis in ruminants, J. Dairy Sci. 68:501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baulieu, E.-E., 1990, Hormones, a complex communications network, in: “Hormones. From molecules to disease”, Baulieu E.-E. and Kelly, P.A., eds., p. 3, Hermann, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, C.N., 1993 Autocrine mechanisms modulating enocrine regulation of mammary gland function. Ph.D, University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, C.N., Knight, C.H. and Wilde, C.J., 1990, Regulation of mammary prolactin binding by secreted milk proteins, J. Endocr. 127 Suppl:141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, C.N., Wilde, C.J. and Knight, C.H., 1992, Changes in prolactin binding with milk accumulation in the lactating rabbit, J. Endocr. 132 suppl:292.Google Scholar
  6. Bern, H., 1990, The ‘new’ endocrinology: its scope and its impact. Amer. Zool. 30:877.Google Scholar
  7. Collier, R.J., McGrath, M.F., Byatt, J.C. and Zurfluh, L.L., 1993, Regulation of mammary growth by peptide hormones: involvement of receptors, growth factors and binding proteins. Livest. Prod. Sci. 34:21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Costlow, M.E., 1986, Prolactin interaction with its receptor and the relationship to the subsequent regulation of metabolic processes, in: “Actions of prolactin on molecular processes”, Rillema J.A., ed. p. 5, CRC Press, Florida.Google Scholar
  9. Dewhurst, R.J. and Knight, C.H., 1993, An investigation of the changes in sites of milk storage in the bovine udder over two lactation cycles, Anim. Prod. 57:379.Google Scholar
  10. Dewhurst, R.J. and Knight, C.H., 1994, Relationship between milk storage characteristics and the short-term response of dairy cows to thrice-daily milking, Anim. Prod. 58:181.Google Scholar
  11. Ehmann, U.K., Calderwood, S.K. and Stevenson, M.A., 1994, Juxtacrine growth stimulation of mouse mammary cells in culture, in: “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Faulkin, L.J. and DeOme, K.B., 1960, Regulation of growth and spacing of gland elements in the mammary fat pad of the C3H mouse, J. Natl. Cancer lnst. 24:953.Google Scholar
  13. Fleet, I.R., Forsyth, I.A. and Taylor, J.C., 1992, Transfer of prolactin into milk in the goat. J. Endocr. 132 suppl:254.Google Scholar
  14. Flint, D.J., 1995, Regulation of milk secretion and composition by growth hormone and prolactin, in: “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Flint, D.J. and Gardner, M.J., 1994, Evidence that growth hormone stimulates milk synthesis by direct action on the mammary gland and that prolactin exerts effects on milk secretion by maintenance of mammary DNA content and tight junction status, Endocr. in press.Google Scholar
  16. Flint, D.J., Tonner, E., Beattie, J. and Gardner, M.J., 1994, Several insulin-like growth factor-I analogues and complexes of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 fail to mimic the effect of growth hormone upon lactation in the rat, J. Endocr. 140:211. Forsyth, I.A., 1989, Growth factors in mammary gland function, J. Reprod. Fert. 85:759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forsyth, I.A., 1989, Growth factors in mammary gland function, J. Reprod. Fert. 85:759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grosse, R., 1995, Control of mammary gland development by growth factors, in “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Hauser, S.D., McGrath, M.F., Collier, R.J. and Krivi, G.G., 1990, Cloning and in vivo expression of bovine growth hormone receptor mRNA, Mol. Cell. Endocr. 72:187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henderson, A.J. and Peaker, M., 1987, Effect of removing milk from the mammary ducts and alveoli, or of diluting stored milk, on the rate of milk secretion in the goat, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 72:13.Google Scholar
  21. Howlett, A.R. and Bisseil, M.J., 1990, Regulation of mammary epithelial cell function: a role for stromal and basement membrane matrices, Protoplasma. 159:85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knight, C.H., 1987, Compensatory changes in mammary development and function after hemimastectomy in lactating goats, J. Reprod. Fert. 79:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knight, C.H., Brosnan, T., Wilde, C.J. and Peaker, M., 1989, Evidence for a relationship between gross mammary anatomy and the increase in milk yield obtained during thrice daily milking in goats. J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstr. Ser. 3:32.Google Scholar
  24. Knight, C.H., Brown, J.R. and Sejrsen, K., 1994, A comparison of growth hormone-induced mammogenesis in pregnant and lactating goats, Endocr. Metab. 1 suppl B:52.Google Scholar
  25. Knight, C.H. and Dewhurst, R.D., 1994a, Milk accumulation and distribution in the bovine udder during the interval between milkings, J. Dairy Res. 61:167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knight, C.H. and Dewhurst, R.D., 1994b, Once daily milking of dairy cows; relationship between yield loss and mammary cistern capacity, J. Dairy Res. in press.Google Scholar
  27. Knight, C.H., France, J. and Beever, D.E., 1994, Nutrient metabolism and utilisation in the mammary gland, Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knight, C.H. and Peaker, M., 1981, Lack of compensatory mammary growth following hemimastectomy in the guinea pig, Comp. Bichem. Physiol. 70A:427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knight, C.H., Stelwagen, K., Fair, V.C. and Davis, S.R., 1994, Use of an oxytocin analogue to determine cisteraal and alveolar milk pool sizes in goats, J. Dairy Sci. in press.Google Scholar
  30. Knight, C.H., Stewart, E.J. and Bennett, C.N., 1993, Prolactin binding by mammary secretory cell apical ‘milk-side’ membrane, J. Reprod. Fert. Abstr. Ser. 11:103.Google Scholar
  31. Koldovsky, O., 1989, Search for role of milk-borne biologically active peptides for the suckling, J. Nutr. 119:1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kratochwil, K., 1986, Hormone action and epithelial-stromal interaction: mutual dependence, Horm. Cell Regn. 139:9.Google Scholar
  33. Mepham, T.B., 1987, “Physiology of Lactation”. Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  34. Nielsen, M.O., Fleet, I.R., Jakobsen, K. and Heap, R.B., 1994, The local effect of prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2alpha on mammary blood flow of lactating goats, J. Endocr. in press.Google Scholar
  35. Nolin, J.M., 1979, The prolactin incorporation cycle of the milk secretory cell, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 278:1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oka, T., Yoshimura, M., Lavandero, S., Wada, K. and Ohba, Y., 1991, Control of growth and differentiation of the mammary gland by growth factors, J. Dairy Sci. 74:2788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peaker, M., 1991, Production of hormones by the mammary gland: short review, Endocr. Reg. 25:10.Google Scholar
  38. Peaker, M., 1992, Commentary: Chemical signalling systems: the rules of the game, J. Endocr. 135:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peaker, M., 1995, Autocrine control of milk secretion: development of the concept, in: “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Peaker, M. and Blatchford, D.R., 1988, Distribution of milk in the goat mammary gland and its relation to the rate and control of milk secretion, J. Dairy Res. 55:41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peaker, M. and Neville, M.C., 1991, Hormones in milk: chemical signals to the offspring. J. Endocr. 131:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peaker, M. and Taylor, E., 1990, Oestrogen production by the goat mammary gland: transient aromatase activity during late pregnancy, J. Endocr. 125:R1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plaut, K., 1993, Role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors in mammary development and lactation, J. Dairy Sci. 76:1526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prosser, C. and Davis, S.R., 1992, Milking frequency alters the milk yield and mammary blood flow response to intra-mammary infusion of insulin-like growth factor-I in the goat, J. Endocr. 135:311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prosser, C.G. ,Fleet, I.R., Corps, A.N., Froesch, E.R. and Heap, R.B., 1990, Increase in milk secretion and mammary blood flow by intra-arterial infusion of insulin-like growth factor-1 into the mammary gland of the goat, J. Endocr. 126:437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rennison, M.E., Kerr, M., Addey, C.V.P., Handel, S.E., Turner, M.D., Wilde, C.J. and Burgoyne, R.D., 1993, Inhibition of constitutive protein secretion from lactating mouse mammary epithelial cells by FIL feedback inhibitor of lactation, a secreted milk protein, J. Cell Sci. 106:641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sandowski, Y., Peri, I. and Gertler, A., 1993, Partial purification and characterization of putative paracrine/autocrine bovine mammary epithelium growth factors, Livest. Prod. Sci. 35:35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sejrsen, K. and Knight, C.H., 1993, Unilateral intramammary infusion of GH does not support a local galactopoietic action of growth hormone in goats, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 52:278A.Google Scholar
  49. Selman, P.J., Mol, J.A., Rutteman, G.R., Van Garderen, E. and Rijnberk, A., 1994, Progestin-induced growth hormone excess in the dog originates in the mammary gland, Endocr. 134:287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shamay, A., Cohen, N., Niwa, M. and Gertler, A., 1988, Effect of insulin-like growth factor I on dexoyribonucleic acid synthesis and galactopoiesis in bovine undifferentiated and lactating mammary tissue in vitro, Endocr., 123, 804–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sherman, D.B., 1992, K+ and Cl” transport by mammary secretory cell apical membrane vesicles isolated from milk, J. Dairy Res. 59:339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Steinmetz, R.W., Grant, A.L. and Malven, P.V., 1993, Transcription of prolactin gene in milk secretory cells of the rat mammary gland, J. Endocr. 136:271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Streuli, C., 1993, Extracellular matrix and gene expression in mammary epithelium. Sem. Cell Biol. 4:307. Streuli, C., 1995, Mechanisms of extracellular matrix-induced control of milk protein secretion, in: “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Wilde, C.J., Addey, C.V.P., Boddy-Finch, L.M. and Peaker, M., 1995a, Autocrine control of milk secretion: from concept to application, in: “Intercellular signalling in the mammary gland”, Wilde, C.J., Peaker, M. and Knight, C.H. eds., Plenum Publishing Company, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilde, C.J., Addey, C.V.P., Boddy, L.M. and Peaker, M., 1995b, Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk, Biochem. J. in press.Google Scholar
  56. Wilde, C.J., Blatchford, D.R. and Peaker, M., 1991, Regulation of mouse mammary cell differentiation by extracellular milk proteins, Exp. Physiol. 76:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Winder, S.J. and Forsyth, I.A., 1986, Insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 is a potent mitogen for ovine mammary epithelial cells, 7. Endocr. 108 suppl:141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher H. Knight
    • 1
  1. 1.Hannah Research InstituteAyrUK

Personalised recommendations