The Utility of PCR in Situ Hybridization for the Detection of HIV-1 DNA and RNA

  • Gerard J. Nuovo


Although the primary manifestation of AIDS is severe immunosuppression and associated opportunistic infections and malignancies, other systems are often involved. Many patients with AIDS will show symptoms indicative of central nervous system (CNS) or skeletal muscle involvement.1–3 Further, given that homosexual and heterosexual transmission are primary modes of spread of the virus, it is evident that HIV-1 must be able to proliferate at certain sites in the anogenital tract.


Polymerase Chain Reaction Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Viral Infected Cell Cervical Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H.Budka. Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection.Brain Pathol. 1:163(1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.W. Price, B. Brew, J. Sidti, M. Rosenblum,. A.C. Scheck, and P. Cleary. The rain in AIDS: Central nervous system HIV-1 infection and AIDS demen dementia complex. Science 239:586 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.A. Wrzolek, J.H. Sher, P.B. Kozlowski, and C.Rao. Skeletal muscle pathology in AIDS: An autopsy study. Muscle & Nerve 13:508 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Embretson, M. Zupancic, J. Beneke, M. Till, S.Wolinsky, J.L. Ribas, A.Burke, and A.T. Haase. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus infected tissues by amplification and in situ hybridization reveals latent and permissive infections at single cell resolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 90:357 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.J. Nuovo, M. Margiotta, P. MacConnell, and J. Becker. Rapid in situ detection of PCR-amplified HIV 1 DNA. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 1:98 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Pantaleo, C. Graziosi, J.F. Demarest, L. Butini, M. Montroni, C.H. Fox,J.M. Orenstein, D.P. Kotler, and A.S. Fauci. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of the disease. Nature 362:355 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Bagasra, S.P. Hauptman, H.,W. Lischer, M. Sachs, and R.J. Pomerantz. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus in mononuclear cells by in situ polymerase chain reaction. New Engl. J. Med. 326: 1385 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B.K. Patterson, M. Till, P. (Otto, C. Goolsby, M.R. Furtado, L.J. McBride, and S.M.Wolinsky. Detection of HIV-1 DNA and messenger RNA in individual cells by PCR-driven in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Science 260:976(1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.E. Harper, L.M. Marselle, R.C. Gallo, and F. Wong-Staal. Detection of lymphocytes expressing human T-lymphotropic virus type HI in lymph nodes and peripheral blood from infected individuals by in situ hybridization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 83:772 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Shapshak, N.C.J. Sun, L. Resnick, M.Y.K. Hsu, W.W. Tourtellotte, P.,Schmid, A. Conrad, M. Fiala, and D.T. Imagawa. The detection of HIV by in situ hybridization. Mod. Pathol. 3:146 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.J. Pomerantz, D.Trono, M.B. Feinberg, and D. Baltimore. Cells nonpro-ductively infected with HIV-1 exhibit an aberrant pattern of viral RNA expression: A molecular model for latency. Cell 61:1271 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.J. Nuovo, M. Margiotta, P. MacConnell, and J. Becker. Rapid in situ detection of PCR-amplified HIV 1 DNA. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 1:98 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Embretson, M. Zupancic, J.L.Ribas, A. Burke, P. Racz, T. Tenner-Racz,and A.T. Haase. Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS. Nature 362: 359(1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.T. Haase, E.F. Retzel, and K.A. Staskus. Amplification and detection of lentiviral DNA inside cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 84:4971 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.J. Nuovo. “PCR Methods and Applications.” Raven Press, New York (1992).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.J. Nuovo, F. Gallery, R. Horn, P. MacConnell, and W. Block. Importance of different variables for optimizing in situ detection of PCR-amplified DNA. PCR Meth. Applic. 2:305 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G.J. Nuovo, K. Lidonocci, P. MacConnell, and B. Lane. Intracellular localization of PCR-amplified hepatitis C cDNA. Am. J. Pathol. 17:68 (1993).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F.Clayton, E.B. Klein, and D.P. Kotler. Correlation of in situ hybridization with histology and viral culture in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with cytomegalovirus. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 113: 1124 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Pantaleo, C. Graziosi, and A.S. Fauci. The immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 328:327 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.D. Ho, R.J. Pomerantz, and J.C. Kaplan. Pathogenesis of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:278 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard J. Nuovo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologySUNY at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations