Molecular Interaction of HIV-1 in Glioma Cells
Analysis of brain specimens of HIV-1-infected individuals by immuno-chemistry as well as in situ hybridization indicate that the major cell types expressing HIV-1 antigens and nucleic acids in the central nervous system (CNS) are of macrophage origin and include microglia, macrophages and derivative multinucleated cells.1,2 However, HIV-1 expression has been described in other cell types, including capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.3–7 Productive HIV-1 infection in brains of patients with AIDS-encephalitis is in many cases not abundant and often not in keeping with the severity of the disease.8 On the other hand, high levels of HIV-1 DNA have been detected in brain tissue by Southern blot analysis9,10 as well as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.11–13 Quantitative estimates of viral DNA in HIV-encephalitis autopsy samples indicate DNA levels comparable to or exceeding those in lymphoid tissues.10,12 This suggests the presence of a latently infected virus reservoir in the brain. An indication that HIV-1 can directly infect cells of the nervous system came from in vitro infection studies of cultured human astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cells with HIV-1.14–19 In addition, primary human brain cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have also been found to be infected with HIV-1 in vitro. 20–22 In vitro infection of human glioma cells with HIV 1 differs markedly from infection of susceptible T-cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by: (a) absence of virusinduced cytopathic effects in target cells; (b) lack of requirement for the presence of the CD4 cell surface receptor; and (c) the prevalence of a nonproductive infection phenotype.
KeywordsLymphoma Leukemia Dementia Glycine Serine
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