Molecular Interaction of HIV-1 in Glioma Cells
Analysis of brain specimens of HIV-1-infected individuals by immuno-chemistry as well as in situ hybridization indicate that the major cell types expressing HIV-1 antigens and nucleic acids in the central nervous system (CNS) are of macrophage origin and include microglia, macrophages and derivative multinucleated cells.1,2 However, HIV-1 expression has been described in other cell types, including capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.3–7 Productive HIV-1 infection in brains of patients with AIDS-encephalitis is in many cases not abundant and often not in keeping with the severity of the disease.8 On the other hand, high levels of HIV-1 DNA have been detected in brain tissue by Southern blot analysis9,10 as well as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.11–13 Quantitative estimates of viral DNA in HIV-encephalitis autopsy samples indicate DNA levels comparable to or exceeding those in lymphoid tissues.10,12 This suggests the presence of a latently infected virus reservoir in the brain. An indication that HIV-1 can directly infect cells of the nervous system came from in vitro infection studies of cultured human astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cells with HIV-1.14–19 In addition, primary human brain cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have also been found to be infected with HIV-1 in vitro. 20–22 In vitro infection of human glioma cells with HIV 1 differs markedly from infection of susceptible T-cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by: (a) absence of virusinduced cytopathic effects in target cells; (b) lack of requirement for the presence of the CD4 cell surface receptor; and (c) the prevalence of a nonproductive infection phenotype.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Glioma Cell Glioma Cell Line Sodium Butyrate
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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