Biophysical Bases of Elasticity Imaging

  • A. P. Sarvazyan
  • A. R. Skovoroda
  • S. Y. Emelianov
  • J. B. Fowlkes
  • J. G. Pipe
  • R. S. Adler
  • R. B. Buxton
  • P. L. Carson
Part of the Acoustical Imaging book series (ACIM, volume 21)

Abstract

Elasticity imaging is based on two processes. The first is the evaluation of the mechanical response of a stressed tissue using imaging modalities, e.g. ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans and Doppler ultrasound. The second step is depiction of the elastic properties of internal tissue structures by mathematical solution of the inverse mechanical problem. The evaluation of elastic properties of tissues has the potential for being an important diagnostic tool in the detection of cancer as well as other injuries and diseases. The success of breast self-examination in conjunction with mammography for detection and continuous monitoring of lesions has resulted in early diagnosis and institution of therapy. Self-examination is based on the manually palpable texture difference of the lesion relative to adjacent tissue and, as such, is limited to lesions located relatively near the skin surface and increased lesion hardness with respect to the surrounding tissue. Imaging of tissue “hardness” should allow more sensitive detection of abnormal structures deeper within tissue. Tissue hardness can actually be quantified in terms of the tissue elastic moduli and may provide good contrast between normal and abnormal tissues based on the large relative variation in shear (or Young’s) elastic modulus.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Potts RO, Chrisman DA, and Buras EM, Jr. 1983, The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo. J Biomechanics 16, 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarvazyan AP. 1983, Biophysical basis of ultrasonic medical diagnostics, In: Ultrasonic Diagnostic (Rus.), Institute of Applied Physics, Gorky, 80–94.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Madigosky WM, Lee GF, Haun J, Borkat F, and Kotaoka R. 1986, Acoustic surface wave measurement on live bottlenose dolphins, J Acoust Soc Am 79,153–159.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dorogi PM, Dewitt GM, Stone BR, Buras EM, Jr. 1986, Viscoelastometry of skin in vivo using shear wave propagation, Bioeng Skin 2, 59–70.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pereira JM, Mansour JM, Davis BR 1990, Analysis of shear wave propagation in skin; application to an experimental procedure, J Biomechanics 23(8), 745–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pereira JM, Mansour JM, Davis BR 1991, The effects of layer properties on shear disturbance propagation in skin, J Biomechanics Engineering 113, 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vucelic D, Sarvazyan AP. 1989, Surface acoustic waves in medical diagnostics. Procs. 13th Intl. Cong. Acoust., Belgrade, 4, 151–154.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    von Gierke HE, Oestreicher HL, Franke EK, Parrack HO, and von Wittern WW. 1952, Physics of vibration in living tissues, J Appl Physiol 4, 886–900.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pasechnik VL, Sarvazyan AP. 1969, On the possibility of examination of muscle contraction models by measuring the viscoelastic properties of the contracting muscle, Studia Biophys 13, 143–150.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fung YC. 1981, Biomechanics-mechanical properties of living tissues, Springer-Verlag; New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krouskop TA, Dougherty DR, Levinson SF. 1987, A pulsed Doppler ultrasonic system for making noninvasive measurements of the mechanical properties of soft tissue, J Rehabil Res Dev 24(2), 1–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kazakov VV, Klochkov BN, Chichagov PK. 1989, The study of dispersive characteristics of a wave on a human body. In: Methods of vibrational diagnostics of rheological properties of soft materials and biological tissues, Ed. V.A. Antonets, Institute of Applied Physics publications, Gorky.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mase GE. 1970, Theory and problems of continuum mechanics, In Schaum’s outline series, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chivers RC, Parry RJ. 1978, Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in mammalian tissues, J Acoust Soc Am 63(3), 940–953.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goss SA, Johnson RL and Dunn F. 1978, Comprehensive compilation of empirical ultrasonic properties of mammalian tissues, J Acoust Soc Am 64, 423–457.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duck FA. 1990, Physical properties of tissues. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sarvazyan AP, Shnol SE, Pasechnic VL. 1969, Acoustical properties of gels and biological tissues in the low frequency sound fields. In: Properties and function of macromolecules and macromolecular systems Ed. G.M. Frank, Moscow, Nauka, 121–134.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sarvazyan AP. 1969, Low velocity of sound in gels and biological tissues. PhD thesis, Pushchino, Institute of Biophysics, USSA Acad. Sei., 99.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sarvazyan AP. 1975, Low frequency acoustical characteristics of biological tissues, Mechanics of Polymers 4, 691–695.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frizzell LA, Carstensen EL, Franke EK, Parrack HO, and von Wittern WW. 1952, Physics of vibration in living tissues, J Appl Physiol 4, 886–900.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Madsen EL, Sathoff HJ, Zagzebski JA. 1983, Ultrasonic shear wave properties of soft tissues and tissuelike materials, J Acoust Soc Am 74, 1346–1355.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malenkov AG, Asoian KV. 1983, Correlation of acoustic characteristics and probable origin of a mouse liver tumor, Biofizika 28(2), 326–329.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pashovkin TN, Sarvazyan AP. 1989, Mechanical characteristics of soft biological tissue. In: Methods of vibrational diagnostic of rheological properties of soft materials and biological tissues. Ed. V.A. Antonents, Institute of Applied Physics publication, Gorky, 105.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burke TM, Blankenberg TA, Sui AKQ, Blankenberg FG, Jensen HM. 1990, Preliminary results for shear wave speed of sound and attenuation coefficients from excised specimens of human breast tissue, Ultrasonic Imaging 12, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parker KJ, Huang SR, Musulin RA, Lerner RM. 1990, Tissue reponse to mechanical vibrations for “sonoelasticity imaging”, Ultrasound Med Biol 16(3), 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sarvazyan AP, Skovoroda AR, Vucelic D. 1992, Utilization of surface acoustic waves and shear acoustic properties for imaging and tissue characterization, in Acoustic Imaging, Ermert, H, Harjes, HP, (eds) v. 19, 463–467, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarvazyan AP, Kiemin VI. 1979, Unpublished results.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sadowsky M. 1928, Z Angew Math Mech 8, 107.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sarvazyan AP, Ponomarjev V, Vucelic D, Popovic G, Veksler A. 1990, Method and device for acoustic testing of elasticity of biological tissues. United States Patent #4,957,851, August 14, 1990.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Modjanova EA. 1974, Ontogenez 7, 1022.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Modjanova EA, Malenkov AG. 1973, Alteration of properties of cell contacts during progression of hepatomas, Experimental Cell Research 76(2), 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dickinson RJ and Hill CR. 1982, Measurement of soft tissue motion using correlation between A-scans. Ultrasound Med Biol 8, 263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tristam M, Barbosa DC, Cosgrove DO, Nassiri DK, Bamber JC, Hill CR. 1986, Ultrasonic study of in vivo kinetic characteristics of human tissue. Utrasound Med Biol 12, 927–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tristam M, Barbosa DC, Cosgrove DO, Bamber JC, Hill CR. 1988, Application of fourier analysis to clinical study of patterns of tissue movement. Ultrasound Med Biol 14(8), 695–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lerner RM and Parker KJ. 1987, Sono-elasticity in ultrasonic tissue characterization and echographic imaging. Procs. 7th Eur. Comm. Workshop, JM Thijssen, ed., October 1987, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lerner RM, Parker KJ, Holen J, Gramiak R, Waag RC 1988, Sono-elasticity: Medical elasticity images derived from ultrasound signals in mechanically vibrated targets. Acoust Imaging 16, 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lerner RM, Huang SR, Parker KJ. 1990, “Sonoelasticity” images derived from ultrasound signals in mechanically vibrated tissues, Ultrasound Med Biol 16(3), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yamakoshi Y, Sato J, Sato T. 1990, Ultrasonic imaging of the internal vibration of soft tissue under forced vibration, IEEE Trans Ultras. Ferro. Freq. Cont., UFFC-37, 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ishihara K, Tanouchi J, Kitabatake A, Uematsu M, Masuyma T, Yoshida Y, Doi Y, Kondo H, Kamada T, Kishimoto S, Ogawa T, Yokozawa N, Mulai H, Kodama M. 1990, High speed digital subtraction echography: principle and preliminary application to arteriosclerosis, arythmia and blood flow visualization, Proceedings of 1990 IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, 2, 1473-1476.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yamashita Y, and Kubota M, 1990, Tissue characterization from ultrasonic imaging of movement and deformation, Procs. of the 1990 Ultrasonics Symposium, 2, 1371–1375.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meunier J, Bertrand M, Mailloux G, Petitclerc R. 1988 Assessing local myocardial deformation from speckle tracking in echography, SPIE Proc. Medical Imaging II 914, 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ophir J, Cespedes I, Ponnekanti H, Yazdi Y, Li X. 1991, Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues, Ultrasonic Imag. 13, 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Parker KJ and Lerner RM. 1992, Sonoelasticity of Organs: Shear Waves Ring a Bell, J Ultrasound Med 11(8), 387–392.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ponnekanti H, Ophir J, Cespedes I. 1992, Axial stress distributions compressors in elastography: an analytical model,” Ultrasound Med Biol 18(8), 667–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Truong XT, Jarrett SR, Nguyen MC. 1978, A method for deriving viscoelastic modulus from transient pulse propagation, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 24(4), 382–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    O’Donnell M, Skovoroda AR, Shapo BM. 1991, Measurement of arterial wall motion using fourier based speckle tracking algorithms, Procs. of the 1991 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2, 1101–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yemelyanov SY, Skovoroda AR, Lubinski MA, Shapo BM and O’Donnell M. 1992, Ultrasound elasticity imaging using Fourier based speckle tracking algorithm, Procs. of the 1992 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2, 1065–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Adler RS, Rubin JM, Bland PH, Carson PL. 1989, Characterization of transmitted motion in fetal lung: Quantitative analysis, Med Phys 16(3), 333–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Adler RS, Rubin JM, Bland PH, Carson PL. 1990, Quantitative tissue motion analysis of digitized M-mode images: Gestational differences of fetal lung, Ultrasound Med Biol 16(6), 561–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Horn KP, Schunck BG. 1981, Determining Optical Flow, Artificial Intelligence 17, 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Feinberg DA, Crooks LE, Sheldon P, Hoenninger J, Watts J, Arakawa M. 1985, Magnetic resonance imaging the velocity vector components of fluid flow, Magn Reson Med 2(6), 555–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Feinberg DA, Jakab PD. 1990, Tissue perfusion in humans studied by Fourier velocity distribution, line scan, and echo-planar imaging, Magn Reson Med 16(2), 280–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Decorps M and Gourgeois D. 1991, Very Slow Flow Imaging, Magn Reson Med 19(2), 270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zerhouni EA, Parish DM, Rogers WJ, Yang A, and Shapiro EP. 1988, Human heart: tagging with MR imaging - a method for noninvasivee assessment of mycardial motion, Radiology 169, 164–172.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Axel L, Dougherty L. 1988, Heart wall motion: improved method of spatial modulation of magnetization for MR imaging, Radiology 169, 59–63.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pipe JG, Boes JL, Chenevert TL. 1991, Method for measuring three-dimensional motion with tagged MR imaging, Radiology 181, 591–595.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fowlkes JB, Emelianov SY, Pipe JG, Skovoroda AR, Adler RS, Carson PL and Sarvazyan AP. 1994, The possibility of cancer detection based on remote MRI measurements of tissue elasticity, submitted for publication in Medical Physics.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Landau LD and Liftshitz EM, 1965, Theory of elasticity, Moscow, Nauka.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Samarskii AA, Nikolaev ES. 1978, Methods of the solution of the net equations, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Skovoroda AR. 1992, About the diagnosis of the local pathologies in the elastic medium (3D approach), Preprint, Pushchino Scientific Center of Russian Acad. Sci., Pushchino.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Skovoroda AR, 1992, About the diagnosis of the local pathologies in the elastic medium (2D approach), Preprint, Pushchino Scientific Center of Russian Acad. Sci., Pushchino.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. P. Sarvazyan
    • 1
  • A. R. Skovoroda
    • 2
  • S. Y. Emelianov
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • J. B. Fowlkes
    • 3
  • J. G. Pipe
    • 3
  • R. S. Adler
    • 3
  • R. B. Buxton
    • 5
  • P. L. Carson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Mathematical Problems of BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Bioengineering ProgramUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyUniversity of California at San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations