Efforts to Quantify Adaptation in Modeling of Postural Control

  • M. Magnusson
  • R. Johansson
  • P.-A. Fransson


The ability to maintain stability and to withstand the effects of gravity on stance and motion is important to a large variety of human activities. It is assumed that adaptation is a necessary quality in human postural control. Studies of adaptation generally include evaluation of gain or amplitude of various parameters of the responses to repeated identical perturbations (Nashner 1976, Nashner and McCollum, 1985, Roos et al., 1988). Such a procedure will inevitably include some possibility of anticipatory action of the subject and one may have some doubts on the generality of the results. Moreover, the evaluation will concentrate on the reduction of responses more than on the time span required to achieve such a reduction. There is a multitude of studies on adaptation of the vestibular ocular reflex where one observes diminishing responses to repeated stimuli, but also over time to repeated sessions of exposure to a stimulus (c.f. Bock et al., 1979; Wilson and Melville-Jones, 1979). Furthermore, the observation of the compensatory process after acute vestibular lesions as well as of reduced symptoms of motion sickness with the adaptation to a moving surrounding or microgravity also exemplifies the conditioning of vestibular responses over time (Wilson and Melville-Jones, 1979).


Postural Control Motion Sickness Postural Response Inverted Pendulum Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bock, O., von Koschitzky, H., and Zangemeister, W.H., 1979, Vestibular adaptation to long-term stimuli, Biol Cybern 33:77–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brantberg, K., and Magnusson,M., 1990, Galvanically induced asymmetric optokinetic after-nystagmus, Acta Otolaryngol 110:189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Forssberg, H., and Nashner, L.M., 1982, Ontogenetic development of postural control in man: adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance, J Neurosci. 2(5):545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Fransson, P.-A., Magnusson M., and Johansson, R., 1995, Analysis of adaptation in anteroposterior dynamics of human postural control (Submitted).Google Scholar
  5. Johansson, R., System Modeling and Identification, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993.Google Scholar
  6. Johansson, R, Magnusson, M., and Fransson, P.-A. Galvanic vestibular stimulation for analysis of postural adaptation and stability. Determination of a Postural Adaptation Time Constant. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1995, 282–292.Google Scholar
  7. Ljung, L., System identification - Theory for the user, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. Nashner, L.M., and Wolfson, P., 1974, Influence of head position and proprioceptive cues on short latency postural reflexes evoked by galvanic stimulation of the human labyrinth, Brain Research 67:255–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nashner, L.M., Adapting reflexes controlling the human posture. Exp Brain Res 26(1):58–72.Google Scholar
  10. Nashner, L.M., Black, F.O., and Wall, C., 1982, 3d. Adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance: patients with vestibular deficits, J Neurosci. 2:536–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nashner, L.M., and McCollum, G.,1985, The organization of human postural movements. A formal basis and experimental synthesis. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 8:135–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Roos, H., Bles, W., and Bos, J.E., Postural control after repeated exposure to a tilting room. In: Posture and gait: Development, adaptation and modulation. B. Amblard, A. Berthoz, and F. Clarac (Eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. I 37–144, 1988.Google Scholar
  13. Tokita, Y., Ito, Y., and Takagi, K, 1989, Modulation by head and trunk positions of the vestibulo-spinal reflexes evoked by galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Observations by labyrinth evoked EMG. Acta Otolaryngol, 107:327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Watanabe, K., Mizukoshi, H., Ohi, K., Ysuda, N., Ohashi, N., and Kobayashi, H., 1989, Retro-labyrinthine disorder detected by galvanic body sway responses in routine equilibrium examinations, Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 468:343–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wilson, J., and Melville-Jones, G., Mammalian Vestibular Physiology, Plenum New York, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Magnusson
    • 1
  • R. Johansson
    • 1
  • P.-A. Fransson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oto-rhino-laryngologyUniversity Hospital of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations