Advertisement

Neuronal Cell Specification from CNS Stem Cells

  • S. Weiss
  • S. Ahmed
  • A. Vescovi
  • B. A. Reynolds
Part of the Altschul Symposia Series book series (ALSS, volume 3)

Abstract

Little is known about the factors and pathways leading to the production of neurons of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Although many in vitro and in vivo studies have described the presence of both unipotent and multipotent CNS progenitor cells and their regulation by extrinsic signaling molecules (reviewed in McKay, 1989), the pathways from primitive precursor to differentiated neuron have not been identified. This is contrasted by cells of the lympho-hematopoietic system, whereby a number of pathways leading from the primitive hematopoietic precursors to fully differentiated blood and immune cells have been described (Metcalf, 1989). Our lack of understanding regarding CNS cell production is due, partially, to a paucity of descriptions of primitive CNS precursors. Recently, we have isolated a cell from the embryonic (Reynolds et al., 1992) and adult (Reynolds and Weiss, 1992) mammalian CNS that fulfills the criteria representative of a stem cell. In this chapter, we review a series of studies which suggest that the pathway from CNS stem cell to differentiated neurons may involve the sequential actions of growth factors that act to influence undifferentiated neural precursors towards the neuronal lineage.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmed S, Reynolds BA and Weiss S (1994): BDNF induces the differentiation of neuronal precursors derived from EGF-responsive CNS stem cells. (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  2. Gensburger C, Labourdette G and Sensenbrenner M (1987): Brain basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates the proliferation of rat neuronal precursor cells in vitro. FEBS Lett 217: 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hall PA and Watt FM (1989): Stem cells: the generation and maintenance of cellular diversity. Development 106: 619–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kilpatrick TJ and Bartlett PF (1993): Cloning and growth of multipotential neural precursors: requirements for proliferation and differentiation. Neuron 10: 255–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. McKay RDG (1989): The origins of cellular diversity in the mammalian central nervous system. Cell 58: 815–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Metcalf D (1989): The molecular control of cell division, differentiation commitment and maturation in haemopoietic cells. Nature 339: 27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Morshead CM, Reynolds BA, Craig CM, McBurney MW, Staines WA, Morassutti D. Weiss S and van der Kooy D (1994): Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian forebrain: a relatively quiescent subpopulation of subependymal cells. Neuron 13: 1071–1082.Google Scholar
  8. Potten CS and Loeffler M (1990): Stem cells: attributes, cycles, spirals, pitfalls and uncertainties. Lessons for and from the Crypt. Development 110: 1001–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ray J and Gage FH (1994) Spinal cord neuroblasts proliferate in response to basic fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci 14: 33548–3564.Google Scholar
  10. Reynolds BA and Weiss S (1994): Isolation and characterization of a mammalian embryonic CNS stem cell. (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  11. Reynolds BA and Weiss S (1992): Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science 255: 1707–1710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reynolds BA, Tetzlaff W and Weiss S (1992): A multipotent EGF-responsive striatal embryonic progenitor cell produces neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci 12: 4565–4574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Vescovi A, Reynolds BA, Fraser DD and Weiss S (1993): Basic fibroblast growth factor regulates the proliferative fate of both unipotent (neuronal) and bipotent (neuronal/astroglial) epidermal growth factor-generated progenitor cells. Neuron 11: 951–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Weiss
    • 1
  • S. Ahmed
    • 1
  • A. Vescovi
    • 2
  • B. A. Reynolds
    • 3
  1. 1.Neuroscience Research Group Departments of Anatomy and Pharmacology & TherapeuticsUniversity of Calgary Faculty of MedicineCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Instituto Neurologica “C Besta”Via CeloriaMilanITALY
  3. 3.NeuroSpheres LtdCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations