Rheology of Reduced-Fat Cheese Containing a Fat Substitute

  • Kevin L. Mackey
  • Nitin Desai
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 367)


To meet consumer interest in foods with reduced fat or low fat content, 1,257 prepared foods with reduced fat claims were introduced in 1992 in the United States, with dairy products accounting for a significant portion of these newly introduced reduced or low fat foods (Dairy Foods, 1993). In the category of traditional dairy foods, natural cheeses made from whole or partially skimmed milk contain a significant amount of fat, ranging from 20–35%. One of the popular semi-hard varieties of cheese, Cheddar, typically contains 32% fat, and consumer acceptability of this cheese is based on its sensory properties related to color, texture, and flavor. Production of acceptable reduced fat Cheddar cheese poses a challenge, since simple reduction of fat levels and increased heat treatment in cheesemaking to incorporate whey proteins to interact with the casein micelles results in a firm, dry cheese with off flavors (Emmons et al., 1980; Green et al., 1981; Lawrence and Gilles, 1987). The addition of heat gelled whey proteins in processed cheese results in a “grainy” texture due to the incorporation of large whey protein aggregates in the cheese (Kalab et al., 1987; Hill and Smith, 1992).


Whey Protein Casein Micelle Texture Profile Analysis Cheddar Cheese Process Cheese 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Dairy Foods ,1993, Bridging the reduced-fat gap, 94 (2):54.Google Scholar
  2. Bourne, M. C., 1982, “Food texture and viscosity: Concept and measurement,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bringe, N. A., and Clark, R. D., 1993, Simplesse®: formation and properties of microparticulated whey protein, in “Science for the Food Industry of the 21st Century, biotechnology, supercritical fluids, membranes and other advanced technologies for low calorie, healthy food alternatives,” M. Yalpani, ed., ATL Press, Mount Prospect, IL.Google Scholar
  4. Creamer, L. K., and Olson, N. F., 1982, Rheological evaluation of maturing Cheddar cheese, J. Food Sci. 47:631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ernmons, D. B., Kalab, M., Larmond, E., and Lowrie, R. J., 1980, Milk gel structure. X. Texture and microstructure in Cheddar cheese made from whole milk and homogenized low-fat milk, J. Text. Studies11:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Green M. L., Tung, A., and Hobbs, D. J., 1981, Development of structure and texture in Cheddar cheese, J. Dairy Res. 43:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Green M. L., Marshall R. J., and Brooker, B. E., 1985, Instrumental and sensory texture assessment and fracture mechanisms of Cheddar and Cheshire cheeses, J. Text. Studies 16:351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hays, D. L., Meyer, G., Snook, R., and Barr, T., 1991, Microparticulated proteins in food products: nutritional and sensory attributes, Inst. Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Dallas, June 1–5, Abstract 355.Google Scholar
  9. Hill, A. R., and Simth, A. K., 1992, Texture and ultrastructure of process cheese spreads made from heat precipitated proteins, Milchwissenschafi 47:71.Google Scholar
  10. Kalab, M., Yung, J., and Yin S. H., 1987, Textural properties and microstructure of process cheese food rework, Food Microstruct. 6:181.Google Scholar
  11. Kosikowski, F. V., 1977, Cheese and fermented milk food, 2nd ed., F. V. Kosikowski and Associates Brooktondale, NY.Google Scholar
  12. Lawrence, R. C., and Gilles, J., 1987, Cheddar cheese and related dry-salted cheese varieties, in “Cheese, Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology,” P. F. Fox, ed., Applied Science Publishers, London and New York.Google Scholar
  13. Luyten, H., 1988, “The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese,” Ph.D. thesis, WageningenAgricultural University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  14. Mistry, V. V., and Anderson, D. L., 1993, Composition and microstructure of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses, Food Struct 12:259.Google Scholar
  15. Nolan, E. J., Holsinger, V. H., and Shieh, J. J., 1989, Dynamic rheological properties of natural and imitation Mozzarella cheese, J. Text. Studies 20:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morris, V., 1985, Food gels — roles played by polysaccharides, Chern. Ind. (London) 5:159.Google Scholar
  17. Richardson R. K., Robinson, G., Ross-Murphy, S. B., and Todd, S., 1981, Mechanical spectroscopy of filled gelatin gels, Polymer Bull 4:541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Singer, N. S., Yamamoto, S., and Latella, J., 1988, Protein product base, U. S. Patent No. 4,734,287.Google Scholar
  19. Singer, N. S., and Dunn, J. M., 1990, Protein microparticulation: the principle and the process, J. Amer. College, Nutr. 9:388.Google Scholar
  20. van Vliet, T., 1991, Terminology to be used in cheese rheology, Bull. IDF 268:5.Google Scholar
  21. Visser, J., 1991, Factors affecting the rheological and fracture properties of hard and semi-hard cheese, Bull. IDF 268:49.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin L. Mackey
    • 1
  • Nitin Desai
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and DevelopmentThe NutraSweet CompanyMount ProspectUSA

Personalised recommendations