Advertisement

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Moderately Halophilic Bacteria

  • Antonio Ventosa
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 75)

Abstract

Halobacteria are a group of procaryotes very well adapted to live in environments with high salinities. In fact, they grow optimally in media with 15 to 25% NaCl and are able to grow at saturated salt concentrations (Rodriguez-Valera, 1988; Kushner and Kamekura, 1988). They are grouped in the order Halobacteriales, in the family Halobacteriaceae, and currently species are included in six different genera: Halobacterium, Haloarcula, Haloferax, Halococcus, Natronobacterium and Natronococcus (Grant and Larsen, 1989). Phylogenetically, halobacteria are included within the archaebacteria (Domain Archaea), most closely related to methanogens (Woese, 1987; Woese et al., 1990). However, in hypersaline environments, in addition to halobacteria, several other procaryotes which show haloadaptation can be observed. They are usually found in media of intermediate salinities, and are designated as moderate halophiles.

Keywords

Halophilic Bacterium Great Salt Lake Hypersaline Environment Purple Sulfur Bacterium Cellular Fatty Acid Composition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins, J.P., Madigan, M.T., Mandelco, L., Woese, C.R. and Tanner, R.S. (1993) Arhodomonas aquaeolei gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, halophilic bacterium isolated from a subterranean brine. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 514–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akagawa-Matsushita, M., Itoh T., Katayama, Y, Kuraishi, H. and Yamasato, K. (1992) Isoprenoid quinone composition of some marine Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Deleya, Pseudomonas and Shewanella species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138, 2275–2281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boone, D.R., Mathrani, I.M., Liu, Y., Menaia, JA.G.F., Mah, R.A. and Boone, J.E. (1993) Isolation and characterization of Methanohalophilus portucalensis sp. nov. and DNA reassociation study of the genus Methanohalophilus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 430–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brenner, DJ., Fanning, G.R., Hickman-Brenner, F.W., Steigerwalt, A.G., Davis, B.R. and Farmer III, J.J. (1983) DNA relatedness among Vibrionaceae with emphasis on the Vibrio species associated with human infection, in “Les baciles à Gram négatif d’intérêt médical et en Santé Publique”, pp. 175–184. INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Caumette, P., Baulaigue, R. and Matheron, R. (1988) Characterization of Chromatium salexigens sp. nov., a halophilic Chromatiaceae isolated from Mediterranean salinas. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 10, 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caumette, P., Baulaigue, R. and Matheron, R. (1991a) Thiocapsa halophila sp. nov., a new halophilic phototrophic purple sulfur bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. 155, 170–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caumette, P., Cohen, Y. and Matheron, R. (1991b) Isolation and characterization of Desulfovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Solar Lake (Sinai). Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Claus, D. Fahmy, F., Rolf, H.J. and Tosunoglu, N. (1983) Sporosarcina halophila sp. nov., an obligate, slightly halophilic bacterium from salt marsh soils. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4, 496–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dobson, S.J., James, S.R., Franzmann, P.D. and McMeekin, TA. (1990) Emended description of Halomonas halmophila (NCMB 1971 ). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40, 462–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobson, S.J., Colwell, R.R., McMeekin, T.A. and Franzmann, P.D. (1993) Direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene of Flavobacterium gondwanense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium salegens sp. nov., two new species from a hypersaline Antarctic lake. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drews, G. (1981) Rhodospirillum salexigens ,spec. nov., an obligatory halophilic phototrophic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. 130, 325–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farrow, J.A.E., Ash, C., Wallbanks, S. and Collins, M.D. (1992). Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Planococcus, Marinococcus and Sporosarcina and their relationships to members of the genus Bacillus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 93, 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fendrich, C. (1988) Halovibrio variabilis gen. nov., sp. nov., Pseudomonas halophila sp. nov. and a new halophilic aerobic coccoid eubacterium from Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 11, 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fendrich, C, Hippe, H. and Gottschalk, G. (1990) Clostr ìdium halophilium sp. nov. and C. litorale sp. nov., an obligate halophilic and a marine species degrading betaine in the Stickland reaction. Arch. Microbiol. 154, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franzmann, P.D. and Tindall, B.J. (1990) A chemotaxonomic study of members of the family Halomonadaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 13, 142–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franzmann, P.D., Burton, H.R. and McMeekin, TA. 1987 Halomonas subglaciescola ,a new species of halotolerant bacteria isolated from Antarctica. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franzmann, P.D., Wehmeyer, U. and Stackebrandt, E. (1988) Halomonadaceae fam. nov., a new family of the class Proteobacteria to accommodate the genera Halomonas and Deleya. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 11,16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Franzmann, P.D., Springer, N., Ludwig, W., Conway de Macario, E. and Rohde, M. (1992) A methanogenic archaeon from Ace Lake, Antarctica: Methanococcoides burtonii sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 573–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garcia, M.T., Ventosa, A., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. and Kocur, M. (1987) Taxonomic study and amended description of Vibrio cost ìcola. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grant, W.D. and Larsen, H. (1989) Order Halobacteriales ord. nov. ,in “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology”, vol. 3, (Staley, J.T., Bryant, M.P., Pfennig, N. and Holt, J.G., Eds.), pp. 2216–2223. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  21. Greenberg, E.P. and Canale-Parola, E. (1976) Spirochaeta halophila sp. n., a facultative anaerobe from a high-salinity pond. Arch. Microbiol. 110, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hao, M.V., Kocur M. and Komagata, K. (1984) Marinococcus gen. nov., a new genus for motile cocci with meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall; and Marinococcus albus sp. nov. and Marinococcus halophilus (Novitsky and Kushner) comb. nov. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 30, 449–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hebert, A.M. and Vreeland, R.H. (1987) Phenotypic comparison of halotolerant bacteria: Halomonas halodurans sp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37, 347– 350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirsch, P. and Hoffmann, B. (1989) Dichotomicrobium thermohalophilum ,gen. nov., spec. nov., budding prosthecate bacteria from the Solar Lake (Sinai) and some related strains. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 11, 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Imhoff, J.F., Tindall, B.J., Grant, W.D. and Trüper, H.G. (1981) Ectothiorhodospira vacuolata sp. nov., a new phototrophic bacterium from soda lakes. Arch. Microbiol. 130, 238–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Javor, B. (1989) Hypersaline environments. Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  27. Kawasaki, H., Hoshino, Y. and Yamasato, K. (1993) Phylogenetic diversity of phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacteria in the Proteobacteria alpha group. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 112, 61–66.Google Scholar
  28. Kersters, K. (1991). The genus Deleya. “The Prokaryotes”, 2nd. ed. (Balows, A., Trüper, H.G., Dworkin, M., Harder, W. & Schleifer, K.H., Eds.), pp. 3189–3197. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Kita-Tsukamoto, K., Oyaizu, H., Nanba, K. and Simidu, U. (1993) Phylogenetic relationships of marine bacteria, mainly members of the family Vibrionaceae ,determined on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 8–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kocur, M. (1984) Genus Planococcus ,in “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology” Vol. 1 (Krieg, N.R. and Holt, J.G., Eds.), pp. 399–402. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  31. Kushner, D.J. (1978) Life in high salt and solute concentrations: halophilic bacteria, in “Microbial life in extreme environments” (Kushner, DJ., Ed.), 317–367. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  32. Kushner, D.J. and Kamekura, M. (1988) Physiology of halophilic eubacteria, in “Halophilic Bacteria” vol. 1 (Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ed.), pp.109–140. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  33. Larsen, H. (1962) Halophilism, in “The bacteria” vol. IV, (Gunsalus, I.C. and Stanier, R.Y., Eds.), pp. 297– 342. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  34. Márquez, M.C., Ventosa, A. and Ruiz-Berraquero, F. (1990) Marinococcus hispanicus ,a new species of moderately halophilic Gram-positive cocci. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40, 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Márquez, M.C., Ventosa, A. and Ruiz-Berraquero, F. (1992) Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization of Marinococcus halophilus. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mathrani, I.M., Boone, D.R., Mah, R.A., Fox, G.E. and Lau, P.P. (1988) Methanohalophilus zhilinae sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38, 139–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Monteoliva-Sanchez, M. Ventosa, A. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1989) Cellular fatty acid composition of moderately halophilic cocci. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 12, 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nissen, H. and Dundas, I.D. (1984) Rhodospirillum salinarum sp. nov., a halophilic photosynthetic bacterium isolated from a portuguese saltern. Arch. Microbiol. 138, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Novitsky, T.J. and Kushner, D.J. (1976) Planococcus halophilus sp. nov., a facultatively halophilic coccus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26, 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ollivier, B., Hatchikian, C.E., Prensier, G., Guezennec, J. and Garcia, J.L. (1991) Desulfohalobium retbaense gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from sediments of a hypersaline lake in Senegal. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olsen, G.J., Larsen, N. and Woese, C.R. (1991) The ribosomal RNA database project. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 2017–2021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Onishi, H. and Kamekura, M. (1972) Micrococcus halobius sp. n. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22, 233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oren, A. (1983) Clostr ìdium lortetii sp. nov., a halophilic obligatory anaerobic bacterium producing endospores with attached gas vacuoles. Arch. Microbiol. 136, 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oren, A., Paster, B J. and Woese, C.R. (1984a) Haloanaerobiaceae: a new family of moderately halophilic, obligatory anaerobic bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oren, A., Weisburg, W.G., Kessel, M. and Woese, C.R. (1984b) Halobacteroides halobius gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic anaerobic bacterium from the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oren, A., Pohla, H. and Stackebrandt, E. (1987) Transfer of Clostridium lortetii to a new genus Sporohalobacter gen. nov. as Sporohalobacter lortetii comb, nov., and description of Sporohalobacter marismortui sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 9, 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Oren, A., Kessel, M. and Stackebrandt, E. (1989) Ectothiorhodospira marismortui sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, moderately halophilic purple sulfur bacterium from a hypersaline sulfur spring on the shore of the Dead Sea. Arch. Microbiol. 151, 524–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Paster, B.J., Stackebrandt, E., Hespell, R.B., Hahn, CM. and Woese, C.R. (1984) The phylogeny of the spirochetes. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paster, B.J., Dewhirst, F.E., Weisburg, W.G., Tordoff, LA., Fraser, G.J., Hespell, R.B., Stanton, T.B., Zablen, L., Mandelco, L. and Woese, C.R. (1991) Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes. J. Bacteriol. 173, 6101–6109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Paterek, J.R. and Smith, P.H. (1988) Methanohalophilus mahii gen. nov., sp. nov., a methylotrophic halophilic methanogen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38, 122–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quesada, E., Ventosa, A., Rodriguez-Valera, F. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1982) Types and properties of some bacteria isolated from hypersaline soils. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 53, 155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Quesada, E., Ventosa, A., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1984) Deleya halophila ,a new species of moderately halophilic bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Quesada, E., Valderrama, M.J., Bejar, V., Ventosa, A., Gutierrez, M.C., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1990) Volcaniella eurihalina gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic nonmotile Gram-negative rod. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40, 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rengpipat, S., Langworthy, T.A. and Zeikus, J.G. (1988) Halobacteroides acetoethylicus sp. nov., a new obligately anaerobic halophile isolated from deep subsurface hypersaline environments. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 11, 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rodriguez-Valera, F. (1988) Characteristics and microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, in “Halophilic Bacteria” vol. 1 (Rodriguez-Valera, F. Ed.), pp. 3–30. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  56. Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., Juez, G. and Imhoff, J.F. (1985) Variation of environmental features and microbial populations with salt concentrations in a multi-pond saltern. Microb. Ecol. 11, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V. and Sneath, P.H.A. Eds. (1980) Approved lists of bacterial names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30, 225–420.Google Scholar
  58. Skerratt, J.H., Nichols, P.D., Mancuso, C.A., James, S.R., Dobson, S.J., McMeekin, TA. and Burton, H. (1991) The phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid composition of members of the family Halomonadaceae and genus Flavobacterium: a chemotaxonomic guide. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14, 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stackebrandt, E., Murray, R.G.E. and Trüper, H.G. (1988) Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the “purple bacteria and their relatives”. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38, 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stackebrandt, E. and Woese, C.R. (1979) A phylogenetic dissection of the family Micrococcaceae. Curr. Microbiol. 2, 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vainshtein, M. Hippe, H. and Kroppenstedt, R.M. (1992) Cellular fatty acid composition of Desulfovibrio species and its use in classification of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 554–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Valderrama, M.J., Quesada, E., Bejar, V., Ventosa, A., Gutierrez, M.C., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1991) Deleya salina sp. nov., a moderately halophilic Gram-negative bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41, 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ventosa, A. (1988) Taxonomy of moderately halophilic heterotrophic eubacteria, in “Halophilic Bacteria” vol. 1 (Rodriguez-Valera, F. Ed.), pp. 71–84. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  64. Ventosa, A., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Poindexter, J.S. and Reznikoff, W.S. (1984) Selection for moderately halophilic bacteria by gradual salinity increases. Can. J. Microbiol. 30, 1279–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ventosa, A., Garcia, M.T., Kamekura, M., Onishi, H. and Ruiz-Berraquero, F. (1989a) Bacillus halophilus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic Bacillus species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 12, 162–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ventosa, A., Gutierrez, M.C., Garcia, M.T. and Ruiz-Berraquero, F. (1989b) Classification of “Chromobacterium marismortui” in a new genus, Chromohalobacter gen. nov., as Chromohalobacter marismortui comb, nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39, 382–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ventosa, A., Márquez, M.C., Ruiz-Berraquero, F. and Kocur, M. (1990) Salinicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic Gram-positive coccus. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 13, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ventosa, A., Márquez, M.C., Weiss, N. and Tindall, B.J. (1992) Transfer of Marinococcus hispanicus to the genus Salinicoccus as Salinicoccus hispanicus comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 530–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ventosa, A., Márquez, M.C., Kocur, M. and Tindall, B.J. (1993) Comparative study of “Micrococcus sp.” strains CCM 168 and CCM 1405 and members of the genus Salinicoccus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43, 245–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vreeland, R.H., Litchfield, C.D., Martin, E.L. and Elliot, E. (1980) Halomonas elongata ,a new genus and species of extremely salt-tolerant bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30, 485–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilharm, T., Zhilina, T.N. and Hummel, P. (1991) DNA-DNA hybridization of methylotrophic halophilic methanogenic bacteria and transfer of Methanococcus halophilus to the genus Methanohalophilus as Methanohalophilus halophilus comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41, 558–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Woese, C.R. (1987) Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 51, 221–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Woese, C.R., Stackebrandt, E., Macke, T.J. and Fox, G.E. (1985) A phylogenetic definition of the major eubacterial taxa. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6, 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Woese, C.R., Kandier, O. and Wheelis, M.L. (1990) Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4576–4579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yoshida, M., Matsubara, K., Kudo, T. and Horikoshi, K. (1991) Actinopolyspora mortivallis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic actinomicete. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yu,I.K. and Kawamura, F. (1987) Halomethanococcus doii gen. nov., sp. nov.: an obligately halophilic methanogenic bacterium from solar salt ponds. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 33, 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zeikus, J.G., Hegge, P.W., Thompson, T.E., Phelps, T.J. and Langworthy, TA. (1983) Isolation and description of Haloanaerobium praevalens gen. nov. and sp. nov., and obligately anaerobic halophile common to Great Salt Lake sediments. Curr. Microbiol. 9, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhilina, T.N., Zavarzin, G.A., Bulygina, E.S., Osipov, G.A. and Chumakov, K.M. (1992) Ecology, physiology and taxonomic studies on a new taxon of Haloanaerobiaceae, Haloincola saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Ventosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Parasitology Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations