Distribution of Neuropeptides in the Human Lower Brainstem (Pons and Medulla Oblongata)
In recent years, many publications have described the distribution of neuropeptides in the brainstem of various species but much less information is available about the human brainstem. Mapping of neuropeptides in the human brain by immunohistochemical techniques is more difficult than in experimental animals. Differences in the post mortem, delay, as well as the in fixation of the brains for immunohistochemistry result in inconsistent outcomes. Comparable data are scarce and hard to be confined to one or two neuropeptides in individual cases. Studies have addressed the distribution of substance P (Nomura et al., 1987; Halliday et al., 1988b; Pioro et al, 1990), neuropeptide Y (Halliday et al., 1988a; Chan-Palay et al., 1990), enkephalin (Emson et al., 1980; Pioro et al., 1990), cholecystokinin (Bouras et al., 1986), neurotensin (Mai et al., 1987), calcitonin gene-related peptide (Unger and Lange, 1991) and somatostatin (Mengod et al., 1992) in the human lower brainstem.
KeywordsDementia Polypeptide Angiotensin Noradrenaline Neurol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bouras, C., P.J. Magistretti, and J.H. Morrison, (1986) An immunohistochemical study of six biologically active peptides in the human brain. Human Neurobiol. 5: 213–226.Google Scholar
- Chan-Palay, V., B. Jentsch, W. Lang, and E. Asan (1990) Distribution of neuropeptide Y, C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, and galanin and coexistence with catecholamine in the locus coeruleus of normal human, Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease brains. Dementia 1: 18–31.Google Scholar
- Fodor, M., Cs. Pammer, T.J. Görcs, and M. Palkovits (1994) Neuropeptides in the human dorsal vagal complex: An immunohistochemical study. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 7: (in press).Google Scholar
- Halliday, G.M., Y.W. Li, J.R. Oliver, T.H. Joh, R.G.H. Cotton, P.R.C. Howe, R.B. Geffen, and W.W. Blessing (1988b) Distribution of substance P-like immunoreactive neurons in the human medulla oblongata: Co-localization with monoamine-synthesizing neurons. Synapse 2: 353–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martin, G.F., G. Holstege, and W.R. Mehler (1990) Reticular formation of the pons and medulla. In G. Paxinos (ed.): The Human Nervous System. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 203–220.Google Scholar
- Paxinos, G., I. Törk, G. Halliday, and W.R. Mehler (1990) Human homologs to brainstem nuclei identified in other animals as revealed by acetylcholinesterase activity. In G. Paxinos (ed.): The Human Nervous System. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 149–202.Google Scholar
- Pioro, P., J.K. Mai, and A.C. Cuello (1990) Distribution of substance P-and enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons and fibers. In G. Paxinos (ed.): The Human Nervous System. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 1051–1094.Google Scholar
- Törk, I., D.A. McRitchie, G.L. Rikard-Bell, and G. Paxinos (1990) Autonomie regulatory centers in the medulla oblongata. In G. Paxinos (ed.): The Human Nervous System. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 221–259.Google Scholar