Water-Soluble Phosphazene Polymers for Parenteral and Mucosal Vaccine Delivery
The advent of modern molecular biology has provided us with a means of producing antigens with unprecedented ease and precision. It is ironic that these new methodologies generate purified antigens that do not generally induce a strong immune response in the absence of an effective adjuvant. The development of improved vaccine adjuvants for use in humans has therefore become a priority area of research. Nevertheless, research on adjuvants has lagged seriously behind the work done on antigens. For decades the only adjuvant widely used in humans has been alum. Saponin and its purified component Quil A, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and other adjuvants used in research and veterinary applications have toxicities that limit their potential use in human vaccines. New chemically defined preparations such as QS-21, muramyl dipeptide, and monophosphoryl lipid A are being studied.
KeywordsTetanus Toxoid Number Average Molecular Weight Muramyl Dipeptide Functional Antibody Hydrogel Microsphere
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