Seed Vigor and Vigor Tests

  • Larry O. Copeland
  • Miller B. McDonald


Seeds, as reproductive units, are expected to produce plants in the field. However, farmers and seed producers have long recognized that the labeled percent germination often overestimates the actual field emergence of seed lots. This observation is attributed to the objective of a standard germination test which states that germination is the emergence and development from the seed embryo of those essential structures which, for the kind of seed in question, are indicative of the ability to produce a normal plant under favorable conditions. (AOSA, 1991) As a result, the standard germination test fails to provide accurate information concerning a seed lot’s field performance potential for at least four reasons. These include the following.


Seed Size Soybean Seed Seed Quality Germination Test Seed Vigor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

General References

  1. Abdul-Baki, A. A. 1969. Relationship of glucose metabolism to germinability and vigor in barley and wheat seeds. Crop Science 9:732–737.Google Scholar
  2. Aguiar, P. A. A. 1974. Some relationships between seed diameter and quality in soybeans. Master’s Thesis, Mississippi State University.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. D. 1970. Physiological and biochemical difference in deteriorating barley seed. Crop Science 10:36–39.Google Scholar
  4. Association of Official Seed Analysts. 1983. Seed Vigor Testing Handbook. No. 32.Google Scholar
  5. Association of Official Seed Analysts. 1991. Rules for testing seeds. Journal of Seed Technology. 12:1–109.Google Scholar
  6. Atkin, J. D. 1958. Relative susceptibility of snap bean varieties to mechanical injury of seed. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science. 72:370–373.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, R. B. 1972. Effects of environment before harvesting. In: Viability of Seeds,> ed. E. H. Roberts, pp. 104–109. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barriga, C. 1961. Effects of mechanical abuse of Navy bean seed at various moisture levels. Agronomy Journal 53:250–251.Google Scholar
  9. Baskin, C. C. 1977. Vigor test methods—Accelerated aging. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 51:42–52.Google Scholar
  10. Beighley, D. H., and N. W. Hopper. 1981. The relationship of chemical composition and electrical conductivity of cowpea seed to field performance. Agronomy Abstracts 1981:117.Google Scholar
  11. Belcher, E. W., and L. Miller. 1974. Influence of substrate moisture level on the germination of sweet gum and sand pine seed. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 65:88–89.Google Scholar
  12. Bonner, F. T. 1974. Tests for vigor in cherrybark oat acorns. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 64:109–114.Google Scholar
  13. Burris, J. S. 1975. Seedling vigor and its effect on field production of corn. Proceedings of the 30 th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference. 185–193.Google Scholar
  14. Burris, J. S. 1976. Seed/seedling vigor and field performance. Journal of Seed Technology 1:58–74.Google Scholar
  15. Burris, J. S., O. T. Edje, and A. H. Wahab. 1969. Evaluation of various indices of seed and seedling vigor in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Proceeding of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 59:73–81.Google Scholar
  16. Burris, J. S. 1973. Effect of seed size on seedling performance in soybeans. II. Seedling growth and photosynthesis, and field performance. Crop Science 13:207–210.Google Scholar
  17. Burris, J. S., A. H. Wahab, and O. T. Edje. 1971. Effects of seed size on seedling performance in soybeans. I. Seedling growth and respiration in the dark. Crop Science 11:429–436.Google Scholar
  18. Byrd, H. W., and J. C. Delouche. 1971. Deterioration of soybean seeds in storage. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 61:42–57.Google Scholar
  19. Byrum, J. R., and L. O. Copeland. 1995. Variability in vigor testing of maize (Zea mays L.) seed. Seed Science and Technology (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Caldwell, W. P. 1972. Relationship of preharvest environmental factors to seed deterioration in cotton. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University.Google Scholar
  21. Cantliffe, D.J. 1981. Vigor in vegetable seeds. Acta Horticulturae 11:219–226.Google Scholar
  22. Ching, T. M. 1973. Adenosine triphosphate content and seed vigor. Plant Physiology 51:400–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cox, F. R., and P. H. Reid. 1964. Calcium-boron nutrition as related to concealed damage in peanuts. Agronomy Journal 56:173–176.Google Scholar
  24. Czabator, F. J. 1962. Germination value: An index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. Forest Science 8:386–396.Google Scholar
  25. Delouche, J. C. 1974. Maintaining soybean seed quality. In: Soybean: Production, Marketing, and Use. Muscle Shoals, Ala.: NFDC, TVA, Bull. Y-69:46–62.Google Scholar
  26. Delouche, J. C. 1980. Environmental effects on seed development and seed quality. Horticultural Science 15:775–780.Google Scholar
  27. Delouche, J. C., and C. C. Baskin. 1973. Accelerated aging techniques for predicting the relative storability of seed lots. Seed Science & Technology 1:427–452.Google Scholar
  28. Delouche, J. C., and W. P. Caldwell. 1960. Seed vigor and vigor tests. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 50:124–129.Google Scholar
  29. Djavanshir, K., and H. Pourbeik. 1976. Germination value—A new formula. Silvae Genetica 25 (2):79–83.Google Scholar
  30. Egli, D. B., and D. M. TeKrony. 1979. Relationship between soybean seed vigor and yield. Agronomy Journal 71:755–759.Google Scholar
  31. El-Sharkawi, H. M., and I. Springuel. 1977. Germination of some crop plant seeds under reduced water potential. Seed Science and Technology 5:677–688.Google Scholar
  32. Fernandez, R. G., and R. J. Laird. 1959. Yield and protein content of wheat in central Mexico as affected by available soil moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 51:33–36.Google Scholar
  33. Fontes, J. A. N., and A. J. Ohlrogge. 1972. Influence of seed size and population on yield and other characteristics of soybeans. (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Agronomy Journal 64:833–836.Google Scholar
  34. Fox, R. L., and W. A. Albrecht. 1957. Soil fertility and the quality of seeds. Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 619.Google Scholar
  35. Franck, W. J. 1950. Introductory remarks concerning a modified working of the international rules for seed testing on the basis of experience gained after the World War. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 16:405–430.Google Scholar
  36. Fritz, T. 1965. Germination and vigor tests of cereal seed. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 39:923–927.Google Scholar
  37. Gloyer, W. C. 1932. Percentage of hard shell in pea and bean varieties. New York Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 195.Google Scholar
  38. Green, D. E., L. E. Cavanah, and E. L. Pinnell. 1966. Effect of seed moisture content, field weathering, and combine cylinder speed on soybean seed quality. Crop Science 6:7–10.Google Scholar
  39. Green, D. E., E. L. Pinnell. 1968. Inheritance of soybean seed quality. II. Heritability of visual ratings of soybean seed quality. Crop Science 8:11–15.Google Scholar
  40. Green, D. E., E. L. Pinnell, L. E. Cavanah, and L. F. Williams. 1965. Effect of planting date and maturity date on soybean seed quality. Agronomy Journal 57:165–168.Google Scholar
  41. Hadas, A. 1977. A suggested method for testing seed vigor under water stress in simulated arid conditions. Seed Science and Technology 5:519–525.Google Scholar
  42. Halmer, P., and J. D. Bewley. 1984. A physiological perspective on seed vigor testing. Seed Science and Technology 12:561–575.Google Scholar
  43. Harman, G. E., and L. R. Mattick, 1976. Association of lipid oxidation with seed aging and death. Nature 260:323–324.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, H. B., M. B. Parker, and B. J. Johnson. 1965. Influence of molybdenum content of soybean seed and other factors associated with seed source on progeny response to applied molybdenum. Agronomy Journal 57:397–399.Google Scholar
  45. Hawkins, R. C. and P. J. M. Cooper. 1979. Effects of seed size on growth and yield of maize in Kenya highlands. Experimental Agriculture 15:73–79.Google Scholar
  46. Heydecker, W. 1972. Vigor. Viability of Seeds, ed. E. H. Roberts, pp. 209–252. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Heydecker, W. 1977. Stress and seed germination: An agronomic view. In: The Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and Germination ed. A. A. Khan, pp. 237–276. Amsterdam: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hicks, D. R., R. H. Peterson, W. E. Lueschen, and J. H. Ford. 1976. Seed grade effect on corn performance Agronomy Journal 68:819–820.Google Scholar
  49. Hiltner, L., and G. Ihssen. 1911. Über das schlechte Auflaufen und die Auswinterung des Getreides infolge Befalls des Saatgutes durch Fusarium. Landw. Jahrbuch fur Bayern 1:20–60, 315–362.Google Scholar
  50. Hopper, N. W., and H. R. Hinton. 1980. The use of electrical conductivity as a measure of cottonseed quality. Agronomy Abstracts 1980:109.Google Scholar
  51. Hunter, R. B., and L. W. Kannenberg. 1972. Effects of seed size on emergence, grain yield, and plant height in corn. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 52:252–256.Google Scholar
  52. Isely, D. 1957. Vigor tests. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 47:176–182.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, D. R., and V. D. Leudders. 1974. Effects of planted seed size on emergence and yield in soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Agronomy Journal 66:117–118.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, R. R., and L. M. Wax. 1978. Relationship of soybean germination and vigor tests to field performance. Agronomy Journal 70:273–278.Google Scholar
  55. Joo, P. K., B. A. Orman, A. M. Moustafa, and M. Hafdahl. 1980. Can leachate electro-conductivity be a useful tool for corn seed emergence potential evaluation? Agronomy Abstracts 1980:109.Google Scholar
  56. Kannenberg, L. W., and R. W. Allard. 1964. An association between pigment and lignin formation in the seed coat of lima bean. Crop Science 4:621–622.Google Scholar
  57. Koostra, P. T., and J. F. Harrington. 1969. Biochemical effects of age on membranal lipids of Cucumis sativus L. seed. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 34:329–340.Google Scholar
  58. Kyle, J. H., and T. F. Randall. 1963. A new concept of the hard seed character in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its use in breeding and inheritance studies. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science 83:461–475.Google Scholar
  59. Lebedeff, G. A. 1947. Studies of the inheritance of hard seed in beans. Journal of Agricultural Research 74:205–215.Google Scholar
  60. Leggatt, C. W. 1948. Germination of boron-deficient peas. Scientific Agriculture 28:131–139.Google Scholar
  61. Lowe, L. B., G. S. Ayers, and S. K. Ries. 1972. The relationship of seed protein and amino acid composition to seedling vigor and yield of wheat. Agronomy Journal 64:608–611.Google Scholar
  62. Lowe, L. B., and S. K. Ries. 1973. Endosperm protein of wheat seed as a determinant of seedling growth. Plant Physiology 51:57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Luedders, V. D., and J. S. Burris. 1979. Effect of broken seed coats on field emergence of soybeans. Agronomy Journal 71:877–879.Google Scholar
  64. Maguire, J. D. 1962. Speed of germination-aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science 2:176–177.Google Scholar
  65. Manohar, M. S. 1966. Effect of osmotic systems on germination of peas (Pisum sativum L.). Planta 71:81–88.Google Scholar
  66. McDaniel, R. G. 1969. Relationship of seed weight, seedling vigor, and mitochondrial metabolism in barley. Crop Science 9:823–827.Google Scholar
  67. McDaniel, R. G., and I. V. Sarkissian. 1968. Mitochondrial heterosis in maize. Genetics 59:465–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1975. A review and evaluation of seed vigor tests. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 65:109–139.Google Scholar
  69. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1977a. AOSA vigor subcommittee report: 1977 vigor test “referee” program. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 51(5):14–41.Google Scholar
  70. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1977b. The influence of seed moisture on the accelerated aging vigor test. Journal of Seed Technology 2(l):19–28.Google Scholar
  71. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1980a. Assessment of seed quality. Horticultural Science 15:784–788.Google Scholar
  72. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1980b. Vigor test subcommittee report. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 54(l):37–40.Google Scholar
  73. McDonald, M. B. 1994. The history of seed vigor testing. Journal of Seed Technology.Google Scholar
  74. McDonald, M. B., Jr., and B. R. Phaneendranath. 1978. A modified accelerated aging seed vigor test for soybean. Journal of Seed Technology 3(l):27–37.Google Scholar
  75. McDonald, M. B., Jr., and D. O. Wilson. 1979. An assessment of the standardization and ability of the ASA-610 to rapidly predict soybean germination. Journal of Seed Technolog 4(2):1–12.Google Scholar
  76. McDonald, M. B., Jr. 1980. ASA-610 ability to detect changes in soybean seed quality. Journal of Seed Technology 5(l):56–66.Google Scholar
  77. McDonald, M. B., Jr., K. L. Tao, C. C. Baskin, D. F. Grabe, and J. F. Harrington. 1978. AOSA vigor seed committee report. 1978 vigor test “referee” program. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 52(4):31–42.Google Scholar
  78. McNeal, F. H., M. A. Berg, P. L. Brauig, and C. F. McGuire. 1971. Productivity and quality response of five spring wheat genotypes (T. aestivum) to nitrogen fertilizer. Agronomy Journal 63:908–910.Google Scholar
  79. McWilliams, J. R., and P. J. Phillips. 1970. Effect of osmotic and matric potentials on the availability of water for seed germination. Australian Journal of Biological Science 24:423–431.Google Scholar
  80. Michel, B. E., and M. R. Kaufmann. 1973. The osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant Physiology 51:914–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Miles, D. F., Jr., and L. O. Copeland. 1980. The relationship of vigor tests and field performance in soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), Agronomy Abstracts 1980:111.Google Scholar
  82. Muchena, S. S., and C. O. Grogan. 1977. Effects of seed size on germination of corn (Zea mays) under simulated water stress conditions. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 57:921–923.Google Scholar
  83. Nass, H. G., and P. L. Crane. 1970. Effect of endosperm mutants on germination and early seedling growth rate in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Science 10:139–140.Google Scholar
  84. Nichols, M. A., and W. Heydecker. 1968. Two approaches to the study of germination data. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 33:531–540.Google Scholar
  85. Nicholson, J. F., O. D. Dhingra, and J. B. Sinclair. 1972. Internal seed-borne nature of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phomopsis spp. and their effects on soybean seed quality. Phytopathology 61:1261–1263.Google Scholar
  86. Nobbe, F. 1876. Handbuch der samenkunde. Berlin: Wiegandt-Hempel-Parey.Google Scholar
  87. Parmar, M. T., and R. P. Moore. 1968. Carbowax 6000, mannitol, and sodium chloride for simulating drought conditions in germination studies of corn (Zea mays L.) of strong and weak vigor. Agronomy Journal 60:192–195.Google Scholar
  88. Perry, D. A. 1973. Seed vigour and stand establishment. Horticultural Abstracts 42:334–342.Google Scholar
  89. Perry, D. A. 1977. A vigor test for seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare) based on measurement of plumule growth. Seed Science and Technology 5:709–719.Google Scholar
  90. Perry, D. A. 1978. Report of the vigor test committee 1974–1977. Seed Science and Technology 6:159–181.Google Scholar
  91. Perry, D. A., ed. 1981. Handbook of Vigor Test Methods. Zurich: International Seed Testing Association.Google Scholar
  92. Pinthus, M. J., and U. Kimel. 1979. Speed of germination as a criterion of seed vigor in soybeans. Crop Science 19:291–292.Google Scholar
  93. Pollock, B. M., and E. E. Roos. 1972. Seed and seedling vigor. In: Seed Biology,> Vol. 1, ed. T. T. Kozlowski, pp. 314–318. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  94. Potts, H. C., J. D. Duangpatra, W. G. Hairston, and J. C. Delouche. 1978. Some influences of hardseededness on soybean seed quality. Crop Science 18:221–224.Google Scholar
  95. Priestley, D. A., and A. C. Leopold. 1979. Absence of lipid oxidation during accelerated aging of soybean seeds. Plant Physiology 63:726–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ries, S. K., O. Moreno, W. F. Meggitt, C. J. Schweizer, and S. A. Ashkar. 1970. Wheat seed protein-chemical influence on and relationship to subsequent growth and yield in Michigan and Mexico. Agronomy Journal 62:746–748.Google Scholar
  97. Roncadori, R. W., O. L. Brooks, and C. E. Perry, 1972. Effect of field exposure on fungal invasion and deterioration of cotton seed. Phytopathology 62:1137–1139.Google Scholar
  98. Schoorel, A. F. 1960. Report on the activities of the vigor test committee. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 25:519–525.Google Scholar
  99. Sharma, M. L. 1973. Simulation of drought and its effect on germination of five pasture species. Agronomy Journal 65:982–987.Google Scholar
  100. Sherf, A. F. 1953. Correlation of germination data of corn and soybean seed lots under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 43:127–130.Google Scholar
  101. Shieh, W. J., and M. B. McDonald. 1982. The influence of seed size, shape, and treatment on inbred seed corn quality. Seed Science and Technology 10:307–313.Google Scholar
  102. Simon, E. W. 1974. Phospholipids and plant membrane permeability. New Phytology 73:377–420.Google Scholar
  103. Simon, E. W., and H. H. Wiebe. 1975. Leakage during imbibition, resistance to damage at low temperature, and the water content of peas. New Phytology 74:407–411.Google Scholar
  104. Simpson, D. M., and B. M. Stone. 1935. Viability of cottonseed as affected by field conditions. Journal of Agricultural Research 50:435–447.Google Scholar
  105. Singh, J. N., S. K. Tripathi, and P. S. Negi. 1972. Note on the effect of seed size on germination, growth, and yield of soybeans. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 42:83–86.Google Scholar
  106. Spencer, G. F., F. R. Earle, I. A. Wolff, and W. H. Tallent. 1973. Oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds during storage. Chemistry and Physiology of Lipids 10:191–202.Google Scholar
  107. Stewart, R. R. C., and J. D. Bewley. 1980. Lipid peroxidation associated with accelerated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiology 65:245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Streeter, J. G. 1965. Possible mechanisms in the loss of seed viability. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 39(3):27–35.Google Scholar
  109. Sullivan, G. A. 1973. Effects of dolomitic limestone, gypsum, and potassium on planting seed quality, yield, and grade of peanuts. Arachis hypogea L. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.Google Scholar
  110. Suryatmana, G., L. O. Copeland, and D. F. Miles. 1980. Comparison of laboratory indices of seed vigor with field performance of Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Agronomy Abstracts 1980:113.Google Scholar
  111. Tao, K. J. 1978a. Effect of soil water holding capacity on the cold test for soybeans. Crop Science 18:979–982.Google Scholar
  112. Tao, K. J. 1978c. The 1978 “referee” test for soybean and corn. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 52(4):43–66.Google Scholar
  113. Tao, K. J. 1978b. Factors causing variations in the conductivity test for soybean seeds. Journal of Seed Technology 3(1):10–18.Google Scholar
  114. Tao, K. J. 1980a. The 1979 Vigor “referee” test for soybean and corn. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 54(l):40–58.Google Scholar
  115. Tao, K. J. 1980b. The 1980 vigor “referee” test for soybean and corn seed. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter 54(3):53–68.Google Scholar
  116. TeKrony, D. M., and D. B. Egli. 1977. Relationship between laboratory indices of soybean seed vigor and field emergence. Crop Science 17:573–577.Google Scholar
  117. TeKrony, D. M., and D. B. Egli, 1991. Relationship of seed vigor to crop yield: A review. Crop Science 31:816–822.Google Scholar
  118. TeKrony, D. M., D. B. Egli, and J. Balles. 1980a. The effect of the field production environment on soybean seed quality. In: Seed Production,> ed. P. D. Hebblethwaite. London: Butterworth and Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  119. TeKrony, D. M., A. D. Phillips, and D. B. Egli. 1980b. The effect of field weathering on soybean seed viability and vigor. Crop Science 72:749–753.Google Scholar
  120. Tempe, de J. 1963. The use of correlation coefficients in comparing methods for seed vigor testing. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 28:167–172.Google Scholar
  121. Timson, J. 1965. New method of recording germination data. Nature 207:216–217.Google Scholar
  122. Tucker, H., and L. N. Wright. 1965. Estimating rapidity of germination. Crop Science 5:398–399.Google Scholar
  123. Ullrich, S. E., and R. F. Eslick. 1978. Lysine and protein characterization of spontaneous shrunken endosperm mutant of barley. Crop Science 18:809–812.Google Scholar
  124. Van Onckelen, H. A., R. Verbeek, M. A. Stone, and A. A. Khan. 1973. The metabolism of barley embryo under accelerated aging conditions and its relation to alpha amylase synthesis and RNA metabolism of aleurone. Plant Physiology 51:S–39.Google Scholar
  125. Villiers, T. A. 1973. Aging and the longevity of seeds in field conditions. In: Seed Ecology,> ed. W. H. Heydecker, pp. 265–288. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Walters, H. J. and C. E. Caviness. 1973. Breeding for improved soybean seed quality. Arkansas Farm Research 22 (5):5.Google Scholar
  127. Wang, B. S. P. 1973. Laboratory germination criteria for red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seed. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 63:94–101.Google Scholar
  128. Wester, R. E. 1970. Nonbleached, a genetic marker for quality seed in lima beans. Seed World 160(7):24.Google Scholar
  129. Whaley, W. G. 1950. The growth of inbred and hybrid maize. Growth 14:123–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Woodruff, J. M., F. S. McCain, and C. S. Hoveland. 1967. Effect of relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity during boll opening on cotton seed quality. Agronomy Journal 59:441–444.Google Scholar
  131. Woodstock, L. W. 1965. Seed vigor. Seed World 97(5):6.Google Scholar
  132. Woodstock, L. W. 1968. Relationship between respiration during imbibition and subsequent growth rates in germinating seeds. In: 3rd International Symposium on Quantitative Biology of Metabolism, ed. A. Locker, pp. 136–146.Google Scholar
  133. Woodstock, L. W. 1969. Biochemical tests for seed vigor. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 34:253–263.Google Scholar
  134. Woodstock, L. W. 1973. Physiological and biochemical tests for seed vigor. Seed Science and Technology 1:127–157.Google Scholar
  135. Woodstock, L. W. and M. F. Combs. 1965. Effects of gamma-irradiation of corn seed on the respiration and growth of the seedling. American Journal of Botany 52:563–569.Google Scholar
  136. Woodstock, L. W., and D. F. Grabe. 1967. Relationship between seed respiration during imbibitions and subsequent seedlings growth in Zea mays L. Plant Physiology 42:1071–1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Woodstock, L. W., and B. M. Pollock. 1965. Physiological predetermination: Imbibition, respiration, and growth of lima bean seed. Science 150:1031–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Woodstock, L. W., B. Reiss, and M. F. Combs. 1967. Inhibition of respiration and seedling growth by chilling treatments in Cacao theobroma. Plant and Cell Physiology 8:339–342.Google Scholar
  139. Yaklich, R. W., and M. M. Kulik, 1979. Evaluation of vigor tests in soybean seeds. Relationship of the standard germination test, seedling vigor classification, seedling length and tetrazolium staining to field performance. Crop Science 19:247–252.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry O. Copeland
    • 1
  • Miller B. McDonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Ohio State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations