Permafrost underlies about one-quarter of the world’s land surface and most of the engineering aspect has been well-covered in Andersland & Anderson (1978), Johnston (1981) and Andersland & Ladanyi (1994). This chapter considers more specifically the problems associated with seasonal freezing and thawing of soils in which there is no perennially frozen ground. Frost action may cause extensive damage to buildings, infrastructure such as roads and utility lines and other civil-engineering structures. All such facilities should be designed and constructed to avoid serious functional problems, costly maintenance and unduly short service life. The behavior of soils is strongly influenced by temperature and, therefore, an appreciation of heat transfer in soils is of utmost importance to cold region engineering.


Clay Porosity Convection Foam Sandstone 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

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  • J.-M. Konrad

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