Life Cycle Assessment

  • Christian N. Madu


This chapter discusses the “cradle-to-grave” approach to environmental management of products or processes. It focuses on tracing the environmental burden presented by a product and process and tracks the management of its raw materials, energy and material usage and waste management with a view to developing programs for environmental improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is discussed by looking at its three main stages namely inventory analysis, impact assessment, and improvement assessment


Life Cycle Assessment Analytic Hierarchy Process Life Cycle Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Quality Function Deployment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Fava, J. A., R. Denison, B. Jones, et al., eds., (1991) A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle Assessments, SETAC, Washington, D.C. 134 pp. Google Scholar
  2. Franklin Associates, Ltd. (1992) Energy and environmental profile analysis of children’s single use and cloth diapers, Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, Kan. 114 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Johnson, B.W., (1994) “Inventory of Land Management Inputs for Producing Absorbent Fiber for diapers: A comparison of cotton and softwood land management,” Forest Prod. J. 44(6): 39–45.Google Scholar
  4. Kirkpatrick, N., “Life Cycle Assessment,” Retrieved 12/21/99 from Scholar
  5. LeVan, S. L., (1995) “Life Cycle Assessment: Measuring Environmental Impact,” Presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Forest Products Society, Portland, Oregon, June, pp. 7–16.Google Scholar
  6. Madu C. N., (1999) “A Decision Support Framework for Environmental Planning in Developing Countries,” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 42 (3): 287–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Madu, C.N. (1996) Managing Green Technologies for Global Competitiveness, Quorum Books, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  8. Madu, C.N., (1994) “A quality confidence procedure for GDSS application in multi-criteria decision analysis,” IIE Transactions, 26 (3): 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Madu, C.N., & Georgantzas, N.C, (1991) “Strategic thrust of manufacturing decisions: a conceptual framework,” IIE Transactions, 23 (2): 138–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Madu, C.N., (2000) House of Quality (QFD) in a Minute, Fairfield, CT: Chi Publishers, 100 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Madu, C.N. & Kuei, C-H., (1995) “Stability analyses of group decision making,” Computers & Industrial Engineering, 28(4): 881–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Madu, C.N., (1998), “Strategic Total Quality Management,” in Handbook of Total Quality Management, (ed. C.N. Madu), Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 165–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Product Ecology Consultants, “Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Explained,” Retrieved from on 12/21/99.
  14. Saaty, T.L., (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Saaty, T.L. (1987) “Rank generation, preservation, and reversal in the analytic hierarchy decision process, Decision Sciences, 18: 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. SETAC (North American & Europe) Workgroups, “Evolution and Development of the Conceptual Framework and Methodology of Life-cycle Impact Assessment,” SETAC Press, Washington, D.C, 1–14.Google Scholar
  17. Standards Council of Canada (1997) “What will be the ISO 14000 series of international standards — ISO 14000,” January.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian N. Madu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management & Management Science, Lubin School of BusinessPace UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations