Flexible and Modular Cell Design

  • Ali K. Kamrani
  • Sa’ed M. Salhieh


The evolution of manufacturing from stand-alone automation to computer-integrated manufacturing has occurred since the 1960s. During the 1960s, stand-alone automation received the most attention. This type of automation, also known as point automation, consists of workstations that may vary from one numerically controlled machine to a number of numerically controlled machines operated by a skilled operator. In standalone automation, the material handling normally is performed manually.


Flow Shop Flexible Manufacturing System Machine Type Tool Type Twist Drill 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali K. Kamrani
    • 1
  • Sa’ed M. Salhieh
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Michigan-DearbornUSA
  2. 2.Wayne State UniversityUSA

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