Prolactin pp 297-316 | Cite as

Regulation of Pancreatic Islets by Prolactin, Growth Hormone and Placental Lactogen

  • Robert L. Sorenson
  • T. Clark Brelje
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 12)


The role of pituitary hormones in the regulation of glucose homeostasis was first recognized by Bernado Houssay in the 1930’s (1–3). Subsequent studies have demonstrated that both prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) secreted by the pituitary and the closely related placental lactogen (PL) secreted by the placenta during pregnancy are involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (4). Although changes in the function of pancreatic islets of Langerhans are reported in many of these conditions, it has been unclear to what extent these reflect a direct effect of the hormones on islets or are a consequence of the changes in other tissues that increase the demand for insulin (e.g., peripheral insulin resistance). In the 1960’s, it became possible to examine the direct effect of these hormones on islets in vitro. Unfortunately, the species from which islets were easily available (e.g., from rats and mice) were not the same as that of the hormones (e.g., primarily human). The high degree of structural relatedness of these hormones allows a heterologous hormone to have biological properties in tissues from other species that are not shared with the homologous hormone (5–8). Because of these problems with both in vivo and in vitro studies, no unified picture has emerged to explain the physiological roles of these individual hormones in the regulation of pancreatic function.


Growth Hormone Insulin Secretion Pancreatic Islet Peripheral Insulin Resistance Islet Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Houssay BA. The hypophysis and metabolism. N Engl J Med 1936;214:961–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Houssay BA, Anderson E, Bates RW. Diabetogenic action of prolactin. Endocrinology 1955;57:55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Houssay BA, Penhos JC. Diabetogenic action of pituitary hormones on adrenalecto-mized hyphophysectomised dogs. Endocrinology 1956;59:637–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Pregnancy and the endocrine pancreas. In: E. S, editor. The Endocrine Pancreas. New York: Raven Press; 1991. p. 229–252.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nicoll CS. Prolactin and growth hormone: Specialists on one hand and mutual mimics on the other. Perspect Biol Med 1982;25:369–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicoll CS, Mayer GL, Russell SM. Structural features of prolactins and growth hormones that can be related to their biological properties. Endocr Rev 1986;7:169–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogren L, Talamantes F. Prolactins of pregnancy and their cellular source. Int Rev Cytol 1988;112:1–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brelje TC, Allaire P, Hegre O, Sorenson RL. Effect of prolactin versus growth hormone on islet function and the importance of using homologous mammosomatotropic hormones. Endocrinology 1989;125:2392–2399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brelje TC, Scharp DW, Lacy PE, Ogren L, Talamantes F, Robertson M,et al.Effect of homologous placental lactogens, prolactins, and growth hormones on islet B-cell division and insulin secretion in rat, mouse, and human islets: implication for placental lactogen regulation of islet function during pregnancy. Endocrinology 1993;132:879–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. Nutrient and hormonal regulation of the threshold of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreases. Endocrinology 1988;123:1582–1590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. Role of prolactin versus growth hormone on islet B-cell proliferation in vitro: implications for pregnancy. Endocrinology 1991;128:45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parsons JA, Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. Adaptation of islets of Langerhans to pregnancy: increased islet cell proliferation and insulin secretion correlates with the onset of placental lactogen secretion. Endocrinology 1992;130:1459–1466.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sorenson RL, Brelje TC, Hegre OD, Marshall S, Anaya P, Sheridan JD. Prolactin(in vitro)decreases the glucose stimulation threshold, enhances insulin secretion, and increases dye coupling among islet B cells. Endocrinology 1987;121:1447–1453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sorenson RL, Parsons JA. Insulin secretion in mammosomatotropic tumor-bearing and pregnant rats. A role for lactogens. Diabetes 1985;34:337–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Billestrup N, Nielsen JH. The stimulatory effect of growth hormone, prolactin, and placental lactogen on beta-cell proliferation is not mediated by insulin-like growth factor-I. Endocrinology 1991;129:883–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swenne I. Pancreatic beta-cell growth and diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1992;35:193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rabinovitch A, Quigley C, Rechler MM. Growth hormone stimulates islet B-cell replication in neonatal rat pancreatic monolayer cultures. Diabetes 1983;32:307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nielsen JH. Effects of growth hormone, prolactin, and placental lactogen on insulin content and release, and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in cultured pancreatic islets. Endocrinology 1982;110:660–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whittaker PG, Taylor KW. Direct effects of rat growth hormone in rat islets of langerhans in tissues culture. Diabetologia 1980;18:323–328.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sorenson RL, Brelje TC. Adaptation of islets of Langerhans to pregnancy: beta-cell growth, enhanced insulin secretion and the role of lactogenic hormones. Horm Metab Res 1997;29:301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. The physiological roles of prolactin, growth hormone and placental lactogen in the regulation of islet beta cell proliferation. In: N S, editor. Pancreatic Growth and Regeneration. New York: Karger Landes Systems; 1997. p. 1–30.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sorenson RL, Johnson MG, Parsons JA, Sheridan JD. Decreased glucose stimulation threshold, enhanced insulin secretion, and increased beta cell coupling in islets of prolactin-treated rats. Pancreas 1987;2:283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kawai M, Kishi K.In vitrostudies of the stimulation of insulin secretion and B-cell proliferation by rat placental lactogen-II during pregnancy in rats. J Reprod Fertil 1997;109:145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brelje TC, Parsons JA, Sorenson RL. Regulation of islet beta-cell proliferation by prolactin in rat islets. Diabetes 1994;43:263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weinhaus AJ, Bhagroo NV, Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. Role of cAMP in upregulation of insulin secretion during the adaptation of islets of Langerhans to pregnancy. Diabetes 1998;47:1426–1435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goffin V, Shiverick KT, Kelly PA, Martial JA. Sequence-function relationships within the expanding family of prolactin, growth hormone, placental lactogen, and related proteins in mammals. Endocr Rev 1996;17:385–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lowman HB, Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Mutational analysis and protein engineering of receptor-bindg determinants in human placental lactogen. JBC 1991;266:10982–10988.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spellacy WN, Goetz FC. Plasma insulin in normal late pregnancy. NEJM 1962;268:988–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buchanan TA. Metabolic changes during normal and diabetic pregnancies. In: Reece EA, Coustan DR, editors. Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy: Churchill Livingstone; 1995. p. 59–77.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hare JW, Brown FM. Pathophysiology. In: Brown FM, Hare JW, editors. Diabetes Complicating Pregnancy: The Joslin Clinic Method. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1995. p. 3–13.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parsons JA, Bartke A, Sorenson RL. Number and size of islets of Langerhans in pregnant, human growth hormone-expressing transgenic, and pituitary dwarf mice: effect of lactogenic hormones. Endocrinology 1995;136:2013–2021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Costrini NV, Kalkhoff RK. Relative effects of pregnancy, estradiol, and progesterone on plasma insulin and pancreatic islet content. J Clin Inv 1991;50:992–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Metzger B, Pek S, Hare J, Freinkel N. Relationships between glucose, insulin and glucagon during fasting in late gestation in the rat. Life Sci 1974;15:301–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spellacy WN, Goetz FC, Greenberg BZ, Ells J. Plasma insulin in normal “early” pregnancy. Obst Gyne 1965;25:862–865.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Spellacy WN, Goetz FC, Greenberg BZ, Ells J. Plasma insulin in normal midpregnancy. Am J Obst Gyne 1965;92:11–15.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Green IC, Howell SL, Montague W, Taylor KW. Regulation of insulin release from isolated islets of Langerhans of the rat in pregnancy. Biochem J 1973;134:481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dunger A, Lucke S, Besch W, Hahn H-J. The rat pancreatic B-cell during pregnancy and after delivery. Int. Journal of Feto-Maternal Med. 1989;2:55–61.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bone AJ, Taylor KW. Metabolic adaptation to pregnancy shown by increased biosynthesis of insulin in islets of Langerhans isolated from pregnant rats. Nature 1976;262:501–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sorenson RL, Brelje TC, Roth C. Effects of steroid and lactogenic hormones on islets of Langerhans: a new hypothesis for the role of pregnancy steroids in the adaptation of islets to pregnancy. Endocrinology 1993;133:2227–2234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weinhaus A, Bhagroo NV, Brelje TC, Sorenson RL. Dexamethasone counteracts the effect of prolactin on islet function: Implications for islet regulation in late pregnancy. Endocrinology 2000;141.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Forsyth IA. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. J Dairy Sci 1986;69:886–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nielsen PV, Pedersen H, Kampmann EM. Absence of human placental lactogen in an otherwise uneventful pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;135:322–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sideri M, De Virgiliis G, Guidobono F, Borgese N, Sereni LP, Nicolini U,et al.Immunologically undetectable human placental lactogen in a normal pregnancy. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983;90:771–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Simon P, Decoster C, Brocas H, Schwers J, Vassart G. Absence of human chorionic somatomammotropin during pregnancy associated with two types of gene deletion. Hum Genet 1986;74:235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ondin K, Verstegen JP. Secretion patterns of plasma prolactin and progesterone in pregnant compared with nonpregnant dioestrous beagle bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1997;51:203–208.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tyson JE, Hwang P, Guyda H, Friesen HG. Studies of prolactin secretion in human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972;113:14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yuen BH, Cannon W, Woolley S, Charles E. Maternal plasma and amniotic fluid prolactin levels in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;85:293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Luciano AA, Varner MW. Decidual, amniotic fluid, maternal and fetal prolactin in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63:384–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Asfari M, De W, Postel-Vinay MC, Czernichow P. Expression and regulation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) receptors in a rat insulin producing cell line (INS-1). Mol Cell Endocrinol 1995;107:209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Moldrup A, Billestrup N, Nielsen JH. Rat insulinoma cells express both a 115-kDa growth hormone receptor and a 95-kDa prolactin receptor structurally related to the hepatic receptors. J Biol Chem 1990;265:8686–8690.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Polak M, Scharfmann R, Band E, Haour F, Postel-Vinay MC, Czernichow P. Demonstration of lactogenic receptors in rat endocrine pancreases by quantitative autoradiography. Diabetes 1990;39:1045–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nielsen JH, Moldrup A, Billestrup N. Expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in insulin producing cells. Biomed Biochim Acta 1990;49:1151–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Galsgaard ED, Nielsen JH, Moldrup A. Regulation of prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene expression in insulin-producing cells. Prolactin and growth hormone activate one of the rat PRLR gene promoters via STAT5a and STAT5b. J Biol Chem 1999;274:18686–18692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sorenson RL, Stout LE. Prolactin receptors and JAK2 in islets of Langerhans: an immunohitochemical analysis. Endocrinology 1995;136:4092–4098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moldrup A, Petersen ED, Nielsen JH. Effects of sex and pregnancy hormones on growth hormone and prolactin receptor gene expression in insulin-producing cells. Endocrinology 1993;133:1165–1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bole-Feysot C, Goffin V, Edery M, Binart N, Kelly PA. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice. Endocr Rev 1998;19:225–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schindler C, Darnell JE, Jr. Transcriptional responses to polypeptide ligands: the JAKSTAT pathway. Annu Rev Biochem 1995;64:621–651.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stout LE, Svensson AM, Sorenson RL. Prolactin regulation of islet-derived INS-1 cells: characteristics and immunocytochemical analysis of STATS translocation. Endocrinology 1997;138:1592–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Burch PT, Trus MD, Berner DK, Leontire A, Zawalich KC, Matchinsky FM. Adaptation of glycolytic enzymes: glucose use and insulin release in rat pancreatic islets during fasting and refeeding. Diabetes 1981;30:923–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sorenson RL, Lindell DV, Elde RP. Glucose stimulation of somatostatin and insulin release from the isolated, perfused rat pancreas. Diabetes 1980;29:747–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zawalich WS, Dye ES, Pagliara AS, Rognstad R, Matschinsky FM. Starvation diabetes in the rat: onset, recovery and specificity of reduced responsiveness of pancreatic B-cells. Endocrinology 1979;104:1344–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Green IC, Perrin D, Howell SL. Insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans of pregnant rats: Relationship between glucose metabolism and cyclic AMP. Horm Metab Res 1978;10:32–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Howell SL, Green IC, Montague W. A possible role of adenylate cyclase in the long-term dietary regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans. Biochem J 1973;136:343–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weinhaus AJ, Stout LE, Sorenson RL. Glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose transporter 2, and glucose metabolism in islets during pregnancy and prolactin-treated islets in vitro: mechanisms for long term up-regulation of islets. Endocrinology 1996;137:1640–1649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Matschinsky FM. Banting Lecture 1995. A lesson in metabolic regulation inspired by the glucokinase glucose sensor paradigm. Diabetes 1996;45:223–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Davis EA, Cuesta-Munoz A, Raoul M, Buettger C, Sweet I, Moates M,et al.Mutants of glucokinase cause hypoglycaemia-and hyperglycaemia syndromes and their analysis illuminates fundamental quantitative concepts of glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 1999;42:1175–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Malaisse WJ, Malaisse-Lagae F. The role of cyclic AMP in insulin release. Experientia 1984;40:1068–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lipson LG, Sharp GW. Insulin release in pregnancy: studies on adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase, protein kinase, and phosphoprotein phosphatase in isolated rat islets of Langerhans. Endocrinology 1978;103:1272–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sharp GW. The adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system in islets of Langerhans and its role in the control of insulin release. Diabetologia 1979;16:287–2896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Michaels RL, Sorenson RL, Parsons JA, Sheridan JD. Prolactin enhances cell-to-cell communication among beta-cells in pancreatic islets. Diabetes 1987;36:1098–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sheridan JD, Anaya PA, Parsons JA, Sorenson RL. Increased dye coupling in pancreatic islets from rats in late-term pregnancy. Diabetes 1988;37:908–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meda P, Perrelet A, Orci L. Gap junction and cell-to-cell coupling in endocrine glands. Modern Cell Biology 1984;3:131–196.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Galsgaard ED, Gouilleux F, Groner B, Serup P, Nielsen JH, Billestrup N. Identification of a growth hormone-responsive Stat5-binding element in the rat insulin 1 gene. Mol Endocrin 1996;10:652–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zawalich WS, Karl RC, Ferrendelli JA, Matschinsky FM. Factors governing glucose induced elevation of cyclic 3’S’ AMP levels in pancreatic islets. Diabetologia 1975;11:231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zawalich WS, Zawalich KC. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis and insulin release from isolated perifused rat islets: Studies with glucose. Diabetes 1988;37:1294–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davidson MB. Effect of growth hormone on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Endocrine Reviews 1987;8:115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Martin JM, Gagliardino JJ. Effect of growth hormone on the isolated pancreatic islets of ratin vitro.Nature 1967;213:630–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Malaisse WJ, Malaisse-Lagae F, King S, Wright PH. Effect of growth hormone on insulin secretion. J Physiol 1968:423–428.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bennett LL, Curry DL, Li CH. Enhancement of insulin secretion by human chorionic somatomammotropin and related hormones. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1976;152:281–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lippe BM, Kaplan SA, Golden MP, Hendricks SA, Scott ML. Carbohydrate tolerance and insulin receptor binding in children with hypopituitarism: response after acute and chronic human growth hormone administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;53:507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pierluissi J, Pierluissi R, Ashcroft SJ. Effects of hypophysectomy and growth hormone on cultured islets of Langerhans of the rat. Diabetologia 1982;22:134–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Campbell J, Davidson IWF, Lei HP. The production of permanent diabetes by highly purified growth hormones. Endocrinology 1950;46:588–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pierluissi J, Campbell J. Metasomatotrophic diabetes and its induction: basal insulin secretion and insulin release responses to glucose, glucagon, arginine and meals. Diabetologia 1980;18:223–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gold H, Spector S, Samaan NA, Pearson OH. Effect of growth hormone on carbohydrate metabolism in hypopituitary dwarfs. Metabolism 1968;17:74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Walker J, Chaussain JL, Bougneres PF. Growth hormone treatment of children with short stature increases insulin secretion but does not impair glucose disposal. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;69:253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL, Sciarra JJ, Burr IM. Chorionic growth hormone-prolactin (CGP): secretion, disposition, biologic activity in man and postulated function as the “growth hormone” of the second half of pregnancy. Annals New York Acad Science 1968;148:501–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Eden S. Age-and sex-related differences in episodic growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 1979;105:555–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jansson JO, Eden S, Isaksson O. Sexual dimorphism in the control of growth hormone secretion. Endocr Rev 1985;6:128–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bizot-Espiard JG, Double A, Guardiola-Lemaitre B, Delagrange P, Ktorza A, Penicaud L. Diurnal rhythms in plasma glucose, insulin, growth hormone and melatonin levels in fasted and hyperglycaemic rats. Diabetes Metab 1998;24:235–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Waxman DJ, Pampori NA, Ram PA, Agrawal AK, Shapiro BH. Interpulse interval in circulating growth hormone patterns regulates sexually dimorphic expression of hepatic cytochrome P450. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:6868–6872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Udy GB, Towers RP, Snell RG, Wilkins RJ, Park SH, Ram PA,et al.Requirement of STAT5b for sexual dimorphism of body growth rates and liver gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94:7239–7244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gebert CA, Park SH, Waxman DJ. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5b activation by the temporal pattern of growth hormone stimulation. Mol Endocrinol 1997;11:400–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gebert CA, Park SH, Waxman DJ. Termination of growth hormone pulse-induced STAT5b signaling. Mol Endocrinol 1999;13:38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gebert CA, Park SH, Waxman DJ. Down-regulation of liver JAK2–STAT5b signaling by the female plasma pattern of continuous growth hormone stimulation. Mol Endocrinol 1999;13:213–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Luft R, Cerasi E, Hausberger CA. Studies on the pathogenesis of diabetes in acromegaly. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh)1967;56:593–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fineberg SE, Merimee TJ, Rabinowitz D, Edgar PJ. Insulin secretion in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1970;30:288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Young FG, Korner A. Growth hormone. In: Williams RH, editor. Diabetes. New York: Paul B Hoeber; 1960. p. 216–233.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Merimee TJ, Grant MB. Growth hormone and its disorders. In: Becker KL, editor. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Philadelphia: J B Lippincott; 1990. p. 125–134.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chen C, Hosokawa H, Bumbalo LM, Leahy JL. Regulatory effects of glucose on the catalytic activity and cellular content of glucokinase in the pancreatic beta cell. Study using cultured rat islets. J Clin Invest 1994;94:1616–1620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Evans WS, Carlsen E, Ho KY. Prolactin and its disorders. In: Becker KL, editor. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1990. p. 134–139.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Martin IM, Akerblom HK, Gary G. Insulin secretion in rats with elevated circulating growth hormone due to Mtt-W15 tumor. Diabetes 1968;17:661–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Parsons JA, Hartfel MA, Hegre OD, McEvoy RC. Effect of MtTW15 mammosomatotropic tumors on pancreatic islet hormones. Diabetes 1983;32:67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Landgraf R, Landgraf-Leurs M, M,C„ Weissmann A, Hörl R, von Werder K, Scriba PC. Prolactin: A diabetogenic hormone. Diabetologiz 1977;13:99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Johnston DG, Alberti KG, Nattrass M, Burrin JM, Blesa-Malpica G, Hall K,et al.Hyperinsulinaemia in hyperprolactinaemic women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)1980;13:361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gustafson AB, Banasiak MF, Kalkhoff RK, Hagen TC, Kim HJ. Corrleation of hyperprolactinemia with altered plasma insulin and glucagon: Similarity to effects of late human pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:242–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rojdmark S, Lamminpaa K. Does acute endogenous hyperprolactinemia affect intravenous glucose tolerance in humans? Metabolism 1984;33:567–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Adler RA, Sokol HW. Glucose tolerance in rats with elevated circulating prolactin levels. Horm Metab Res 1982;14:307–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Houssay BA. Other hormones. In: Williams RH, editor. Diabetes. New York: Paul B Hoeber; 1960. p. 233–256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Sorenson
    • 1
  • T. Clark Brelje
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations