Advertisement

Detection of Cardiac Allograft Rejection by Targeting Expression of Accessory Molecules on Cardiac Myocytes

  • Mitsuaki IsobeEmail author

Abstract

Acute cardiac allograft rejection is a complicated immune process principally mediated by T cells. T cells recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens via direct or indirect pathways. MHC antigens also play a major role in the destruction of transplanted tissues by activated killer T cells. Since MHC antigens and minor histocompatibility antigens participate in many facets of organ rejection, they are called transplantation antigens. MHC antigens are divided into two categories, class I and class II, according to their function and structure. Normal, nucleated, nonlymphoid cells such as cardiac myocytes express low levels of MHC class I antigens and do not express detectable levels of class II antigens.1,2 MHC class II antigens are normally expressed only on lymphoid cells and antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, monocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and Langerhans cells in the skin. Once T cells are activated, they produce a variety of cytokines that act on cells in the vicinity. Among these cytokines, interferon γ is a potent cytokine that induces expression of MHC and other adhesion molecules not only on the antigen-presenting cells but also on non-professional antigen-presenting cells including vascular endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes3,4 (Fig1). Though their physiological roles in the induction process are still obscure, class II antigens are key elements in the control of the immune response to antigen, functioning in the recognition of antigen by regulatory T lymphocytes.

Keywords

Major Histocompatibility Complex Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Cardiac Allograft Target Expression Radiotracer Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Isobe M, Haber E, Khaw BA. Early detection of rejection and assessment of cyclosporine therapy by indium-111 antimyosin imaging in mouse heart allografts. Circulation. 1991;84:1246–1255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koene RAP, de Waal RMW, Bogman MJJT. Variable expression of major histocompatibility antigens: Role in transplantation immunology. Kidney Int. 1986;30:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Milton AD, Fabre JW. Massive induction of donor-type class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens in rejecting cardiac allografts in the rat. J Exp Med. 1985;161:98–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skoskiewicz MJ, Colvin RB, Schneeberger EE, Russell PS. Widespread and selective induction of major histocompatibility complex-determined antigens in vivo by γ interferon. J Exp Med. 1985;162:1645–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dustin ML, Rothlein R, Bhan AK, Dinarello CA, Springer TA. Induction by IL 1 and interferon-gamma: tissue distribution, biochemistry, and function of a natural adherence molecule (ICAM-1). J Immunol. 1986;137:245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Makgoba MW, Sanders ME, Ginther LG, Gugel EA, Dustin ML, Springer TA, Shaw S. Functional evidence that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a ligand for LFA-1-dependent adhesion in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Eur J Immunol. 1988;18:637–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Springer TA. Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature. 1990;346:425–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Makgoba MW, Sanders ME, Shaw S. The CD2-LFA-3 and LFA-1-ICAM pathways: relevance to T-cell recognition. Immunol Today. 1989;10:417–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isobe M, Yagita H, Okumura K, Ihara A. Specific acceptance of cardiac allograft after treatment with anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1. Science. 1992;255:1125–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isobe M, Ihara A. Tolerance induction against cardiac allograft by anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 treatment: T cells respond to in vitro allostimulation. Transplant Proc. 1993;25:1079–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isobe M, Suzuki J, Yamazaki S, Horie S, Okubo Y, Sekiguchi M. Assessment of tolerance induction to cardiac allograft by anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1997;16:1149–1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pober JS, Gimbrone Jr MA, Lapierre LA, Mendrick DL, Fiers W, Rothlein R, Springer TA. Overlapping patterns of activation of human endothelial cells by interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor and immune interferon. J Immunol. 1986;137:1893–1896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cosimi AB, Conti D, Delmonico FL, Preffer FI, Wee S, Rothlein R, Faanes R, Colvin RB. In vivo effects of monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 (CD54) in nonhuman primates with renal allografts. J Immunol. 1990;144:4604–4612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakai K, Taylor F, Isobe M. Time course and localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 induction in kidney allograft in mice. Transplant Proc. 1994;26:349–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Faull RJ, Russ G. Tubular expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during renal allograft rejection. Transplantation. 1989;48:226–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wegner CD, Gundel RH, Reilly P, Haynes N, Letts LG, Rothlein R. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of asthma. Science. 1990;247:456–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hale LP, Martin ME, McCollum DE, Nunley JA, Springer TA, Singer KH, Haynes BF. Immunohis-tologic analysis of the distribution of cell adhesion molecules within the inflammatory synovial microenvironment. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32:22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson JP, Stade BG, Holzmann B, Schwable W, Riethmuller G. De novo expression of intercellular-adhesion molecule 1 in melanoma correlates with increased risk of metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:641–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sell KW, Tadros T, Wang YC, Hertzler G, Knopf WD, Murphy DA, Ahmed-Ansari A. Studies of major histocompatibility complex class I/II expression on sequential human heart biopsy specimens after transplantation. J Heart Transplant. 1988;7:407–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carlquist JF, Hammond ME, Yowell RL, O’Connell JB, Anderson JL. Correlation between class II antigen (DR) expression and interleukin-2-induced lymphocyte proliferation during acute cardiac allograft rejection. Transplantation. 1990;50:582–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor PM, Rose ML, Yacoub MH, Pigott R. Induction of vascular adhesion molecules during rejection of human cardiac allografts. Transplantation. 1992;54:451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanio JW, Basu CB, Albelda SM, Eisen HJ. Differential expression of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in normal and posttransplantation myocardium. Cell adhesion molecule expression in human cardiac allografts. Circulation. 1994;89:1760–1768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ohtani H, Strauss HW, Southern JF, Miyasaka M, Tamatani T, Sekiguchi M, Isobe M. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 induction: a sensitive and quantitative marker for cardiac allograft rejection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:793–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Corry RJ, Winn HJ, Russell PS. Primary vascularized allografts of heart in mice. Transplantation. 1973;16:343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ono K, Lindsey ES. Improved technique of heart transplantation in rats. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1969;57:225–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oi VT, Jones PP, Goding JW, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. Properties of monoclonal antibodies to mouse Ig allotypes, H-2, and la antigens. Cur Top Microbiol Immunol. 1978;81:115–120.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ozato K, Mayer N, Sachs DH. Hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies to mouse H-2 and la antigens. J Immunol. 1980;124:533–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khaw BA, Mattis JA, Melincoff G, Strauss HW, Gold HK, Haber E. Monoclonal antibody to cardiac myosin: imaging of experimental myocardial infarction. Hybridoma. 1984;3:11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Isobe M, Narula J, Strauss HW, Khaw BA, Haber E. Imaging the rejecting heart: In vivo detection of MHC class II antigen induction. Circulation. 1992;85:738–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peterson PA, Rask L. Genes and antigens of the HLA-D Region, in Solheim BG, Moeller E, Ferrone S (ed): HLA class II antigens. A comprehensive review of structure and function. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp 1–13.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Isobe M, Southern JF, Yazaki Y. Scintigraphic detection of early cardiac rejection by 123I-labeled monoclonal antibody directed against monomorphic determinant of MHC class II antigens. Am Heart J. 1994;127:1309–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barclay AN, Mayrhofer G. Bone marrow origin of la-positive cells in the medulla rat thymus. J Exp Med. 1981;153:1666–1671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barclay AN. The localization of populations of lymphocytes defined by monoclonal antibodies in rat lymphoid tissues. Immunology. 1981;42:593–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Isobe M, Suzuki J, Yamazaki S, Hone S, Okubo Y, Maemura K, Yazaki Y, Sekiguchi M. Regulation by differential development of Thl and Th2 cells to peripheral tolerance to cardiac allograft induced by blocking ICAM-1 and LFA-1. Circulation. 1997;96:2247–2253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nelson PA, Kawamura A, Akselband Y, Peattie DA, Aldape RA, Harding MW. Effects of immunosuppressive drugs on cytokine gene transcription studied by message amplification phenotyping (mapping) polymerase chain reaction. Transplant Proc. 1991;23:2867–2869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Isobe M. Scintigraphic imaging of MHC class II antigen induction in mouse kidney allografts: a new approach to noninvasive detection of early rejection. Transplant Int. 1993;6:263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Allen MD, Tsuboi H, Togo T, Eary JF, Gordon D, Thomas R, Reichenbach DD. Detection of cardiac allograft rejection and myocyte necrosis by monoclonal antibody to cardiac myosin. Transplantation. 1989;48:923–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Johnson LL, Cannon PJ. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection. Circulation. 1991;84(3 Suppl):I273–I279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Isobe M, Sekiguchi M. Staging of cardiac rejection by simultaneous administration of 123I-antimyosin and 111In-anti MHC class II antibodies. Acta Cardiologica. 1996;51:515–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Isobe M, Ohtani H, Yagita H, Okumura K, Strauss HW, Yazaki Y. Detection of cardiac rejection in mice by radioimmune scintigraphy using 123iodine-labeled anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Acta Cardiologica. 1993;48:235–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Adams DH, Hubscher SG, Shaw J, Rothlein R, Neuberger JM. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on liver allografts during rejection. Lancet. 1989;2:1122–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Steiniger B, Klempnauer J, Wonigeit K. Altered distribution of class I and class II MHC antigens during acute pancreas allograft rejection in the rat. Transplantation. 1985;40:234–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pescovitz M, Thistlethwaite J J, Auchincloss HJ, Ilsars ST, Sharp TG, Terrill R, Sachs DH. Effects of class II antigen matching on renal allograft survival in miniature swine. J Exp Med. 1984;160:1495–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular Medicine TokyoMedical and Dental University TokyoJAPAN

Personalised recommendations