Automated Facial Expression Analysis
The ability to recognize facial signals is essential for natural communication between humans and until recently has been absent from the computer. Within the past decade, significant advances have enabled computer systems to understand and use this natural form of human communication. Because most investigators have limited their analysis to a small set of posed expressions, the generalizability of these systems to real world applications is low. Here we present an approach to automatic facial expression analysis based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). This system objectively measures facial expressions by decomposing them into component actions. FACS is presently performed by expert human observers, not computers. An automated facial action coding system will have a wide range of applications in behavioral science, medicine, and human-computer interaction. This chapter reviews the state of the art in automated facial expression analysis, describes the Facial Action Coding System, and outlines our approach to automating FACS.
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