Seed Formation and Development

  • Lawrence O. Copeland
  • Miller B. McDonald


Seed formation begins with the fusion of a male and female gamete, a process known as fertilization. Fertilization, orsyngamy, can occur when both male and female gametophytes are fully mature. This usually occurs in a dual fusion process known asdouble fertilization(Figure 2.1). When the pollen grain lands on the stigma, it germinates by sending out a pollen tube, which grows down the style, through the micropyle and into the embryo sac, with the tube nucleus closely following the tube apex downward. The tube nucleus soon degenerates, but the two pollen sperm cells enter the embryo sac, one fusing with the diploid (2N) polar nucleus to form a triploid (3N) endosperm nucleus and the other fusing with the egg cell to form a diploid (2N)zygote, or fertilized egg.


Pollen Tube Seed Development Seed Size Endosperm Development Seed Formation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence O. Copeland
    • 1
  • Miller B. McDonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Crop & Soil SciencesMichigan State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture & Crop ScienceOhio State UniversityUSA

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