Biology of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

  • Daniel M. Knowles
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 104)


A relationship between immune deficiency and lymphoid neoplasia has been recognized for more than 30 years.1 2 3Recurring themes among these immunodeficiency-associated malignant lymphomas include origination in and/or involvement of extranodal and unusual anatomic sites, high grade histopathology, B lymphocyte lineage derivation, a frequent association with Epstein-Barr virus infection and often aggressive clinical behavior.4 5 6 Therefore, it should not be too surprising that individuals suffering from HIV-induced immunosuppression also are at significantly increased risk for developing malignant lymphomas that exhibit these same clinical and biological features.


Malignant Lymphoma Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Gene Rearrangement Primary Effusion Lymphoma Immunoblastic Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Miller DG. The association of immune disease and malignant lymphoma. Ann Intern Med 1967;66:507–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Penn I, Hammond A, Brett Scheider L, Starzl TE. Malignant lymphomas in transplantation patients. Transplant Proc 1969;1:106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gatti RA, Good RA. Occurrence of malignancy in immunodeficiency disease: a literature review. Cancer 1971;28:89–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frizzera G, Rosai J, Dehner LP, Spector BD, Kersey JH. Lymphoreticular disorders in primary immunodeficiencies: new findings based on an up-to-date histologic classification of 35 cases. Cancer 1980;46:692–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knowles DM, Cesannan E, Chadburn A, et al. Correlative morphologic and molecular genetic analysis demonstrates three distinct categories of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 1995;85:552–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elenitoba-Johnson KSJ, Jaffe ES. Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with congenital immunodeficiencies. Sem Diag Pathol 1997;14:35–47.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control. Pneumocystis pneumonia-Los Angeles. Morbid Mortal Week Rep 1981;30:250–252.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Centers for Disease Control. Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men-New York City and California. MMWR 1981;30:305–308.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doll DC, List AF. Burkitt’s lymphoma in a homosexual. Lancet 1982;i:1026–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ziegler JL, Miner RC, Rosenbaum E, et al. Outbreak of Burkitt’s like-lymphoma in homosexual men. Lancet 1982;íi:631–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ziegler JL, Beckstead JA, Volberding PA, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 90 homosexual men: relation to generalized lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). N Engl J Med 1984;311:565–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levine AM, Meyer PR, Begandy MK, et al. Development of B-cell lymphoma in homosexual men. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Levine AM, Gill PS, Meyer PR, et al. Retrovirus and malignant lymphomas in homosexual men. JAMA 1985;254:1921–1925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kalter SP, Riggs SA, Cabanillas F, et al. Aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in immunocompromised homosexual males. Blood 1985;55:655–659.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ioachim HL, Cooper MC, Hellman GC. Lymphomas in men at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A study of 21 cases. Cancer 1985;56:2831–2842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    DiCarlo EF, Anderson JB, Metroka CE, Ballard P, Moore A, Mouradian JA. Malignant lymphomas and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1986;110:1012–1016.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knowles, DM, Chamulak GA, Subar M, et al. Lymphoid neoplasia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): The New York University Medical Center experience with 105 patients (1981–1986). Ann Intern Med 1988;108:744–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Centers for Disease Control. Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1987;36(Suppl):1S–15S.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ahmed T, Wormser GP, Stahl RE, et al. Malignant lymphomas in a population at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Cancer 1987;60:719–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beral V, Peterman T, Berkelman R, Jaffe H. AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 1991;337:805–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lowenthal DA, Straus DJ, Campbell SW, Gold JWM, Clarkson BD, Koziner B. AIDS-related lymphoid neoplasia: the Memorial Hospital experience. Cancer 1988;61:2325–2337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Monfardini S, Tirelli U, Vaccher E, et al. Malignant lymphomas in patients with or at risk for AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80:855–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carbone A, Tirelli U, Vaccher E, et al. A clinicopathologic study of lymphoid neoplasias associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Italy. Cancer 1991;68:842–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ioachim HL, Dorsett B, CroninW, Maya M, Wahl S. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated lymphomas: Clinical, pathological, immunologic and viral characteristics of 111 cases. Human Pathol 1991;22:659–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ioachim HL, Weinstein MA, Robbins RD, Sohn N, Lugo PN. Primary anorectal lymphoma: a new manifestation of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cancer 1987;60:1449–1453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Constantino A, West TE, Gupta M, Loghmanee F. Primary cardiac lymphoma in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Cancer 1987;60:2801–2805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gill PS, Chandraratna AN, Meyer PR, Levine AM. Malignant lymphoma: cardiac involvement at initial presentation. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:216–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Daling JR, Weiss NS, Klopfenstein LL, Cochran LE, Chow WH, Daifuku R. Correlates of homosexual behavior and the incidence of anal cancer. JAMA 1982;247:1988–1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peters RK, Mack TM. Patterns of anal carcinoma by gender and marital status in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 1983;48:629–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raphael J, Gentilhomme O, Tulliez M, et al. Histopathologic features of high grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991;115:15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Raphael J, Gentilhomme 0, Tulliez M, et al. Histopathologic features of high grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991;115:15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brooks HL, Downing J, McClure JA, Engel HM. Orbital Burkitt’s lymphoma in a homosexual man with acquired immune deficiency. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102:1533–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaplan LD, Kahn J, Jacobson M, Bottles K, Cello J. Primary bile duct lymphoma in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med 1989;110:161–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ioachim HL, Ryan JR, Blaugrund SM. Salivary gland lymph nodes: the site of lymphadenopathies and lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1988;112:1224–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pollack RN, Sklarin NT, Rao S, Divon MY. Metastatic placental lymphoma associated with maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:856–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Louie S, Daoust PR, Schwartz RS. Immunodeficiency and the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Semin Oncol 1980;7:267–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krivitzky A, Bentata-Pessayre M, Lejeune F, Callard P, Champault G, Delzant G. Lymphome malin initialement fessier: rôle possible des injections intra-musculaires repeteöes. Ann Intern Med 1984;135:205–207.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Formenti SC, Gill PS, Lean E, et al. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS: results of radiation therapy. Cancer 1989;63:1101–1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henry JM, Heffner RR Jr, Dillard SH, Earle KM, Davis RL. Primary malignant lymphomas of the central nervous system. Cancer 1974;34:1293–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gill PS, Levine AM, Meyer PR, et al. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in homosexual men: clinical, immunologic, and pathologic features. Am J Med 1985;78:742–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    So YT, Beckstead JH, Davis RL: Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a clinical and pathological study. Ann Neurol 1986;20:566–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goldstein JD, Dickson DW, Moser FG, et al. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A clinical and pathologic study with results of treatment with radiation. Cancer 1991;67:2756–2765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Baumgartner JE, Rachlin JR, Beckstead HI, et al. Primary central nervous system lymphomas: Natural history and response to radiation therapy in 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Neurosurg 1990;73:206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gill PS, Graham RA, Boswell W, et al. A comparison of imaging, clinical and pathologic aspects of space occupying lesions within the brain in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Physiol Imaging 1986;1:134–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Loureiro C, Gill PS, Meyer PR, Rhodes R, Rarick MU, Levine AM. Autopsy findings in AIDS-related lymphoma. Cancer 1988;62:735–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    MacMahon EME, Glass JD, Hayward SD, et al. Epstein Barr virus in AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Lancet 1991;338:969–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Knowles DM, Inghirami G, Ubriaco A, Dalla-Favera R. Molecular genetic analysis of three AIDS-associated neoplasms of uncertain lineage demonstrates their B-cell derivation and the possible pathogenetic role of the Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 1989;73:792–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Walts AE, Shintaku IF, Said JW. Diagnosisof malignant lymphoma in effusions from patients with AIDSby gene rearrangement. Am J Clin Patho1 1990;94:170–175Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karcher DS, Dawkins F, Garrett CT, Schulof RS. Body cavity-based non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Nlll.) in Hlv-infected patients: B-cell lymphoma with unusual clinical, immunophenotypic, and genotypic features. Lab Invest 1992; 66(Supp1):80AGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Green I, Espiritu E, Ladanyi M, etal. Primary lymphomatous effusions in AIDS: morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecularstudy. Mod Patho1 1995;8:39–45Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associatedherpesvirus-like DNA sequences are present in AIDS-related body cavitybased lymphomas. N EnglJ Med 1995;332:1186–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nador RG, CesarmanE, ChadburnA, et al. Primary effusion lymphoma: A distinct clinicopathologic entity associated with the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Blood 1996;88:645–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, et al. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 1994;266:1865–1869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cesarman E, Nador RG, Aozasa K, Delsol G, Said JW, Knowles DM. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in non-AIDS-related lymphomas occurring in body cavities. Am J Patho1 1996;149:53–57Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Karcher DS, Atkan S. Herpes-like DNA sequences. AIDS-related tumors, and Castleman’s disease. N Engl J Med 1995;333:797–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pastore C, Gloghini A, Volpe G, et al. Distribution of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus sequences among malignancies in Italy and Spain. Br J Haemato1 1995;91:918–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carbone A, Tirelli V, Gloghini A, et al. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences selectively cluster with body cavity-based lymphomas throughout the spectrum of AIDS-related lymphomatous effusions. Eur J Cancer 1996;32A:555–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nador RG, CesarmanE, Knowles DM, Said JW. Herpes-like DNA sequences in a body-cavity-based lymphoma in an Hlv-negative patient. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Said JW, Tasaka T, Takeuchi S, et al. Primary effusion lymphoma in women: Reportof two cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus-associated effusion-based lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-negative women. Blood 1996;88:3124–3128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Levine AM. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma. Blood 1992; 80: 8–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Raphael MM, AudouinJ, Lamine M, et al. Immunophenotypic and genotypic analysis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Correlation with histologicfeatures in 36 cases. Am J Clin Patho1 1994;101:773–782Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Pallesen G, Franzmann MB, et al. AIDS-related lymphoma: histopathology, immunophenotype, and association with EBV as demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization. Am J Patho1 1991; 138: 149–163Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kaplab LD, Abrams DI, Feigal E, et al. AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Kap an Biology ofLymphoma San Francisco. JAMA 1989; 261: 719–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Pallesen G, Franzmann MB, et al. AIDS-related lymphoma: Histopathology, immunophenotype, and association with EBV as demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization. Am J Pathol 1991;138:149–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    The Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Classification Project. National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: summary and description of a working formulation for clinical usage. Cancer 1982;49:2112–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Knowles DM, Dalla-Favera R. AIDS-associated malignant lymphoma. In Broder S, Merrigan TC, Bolognesi D, (eds): Textbook of AIDS Medicine. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1994; 431–463Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Knowles DM. The pathology and pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas associated with HIV infection. In Magrath I (ed): The Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas, London, Arnold, 1997; 471–494Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ansari MQ, Dawson DB, Nador R, et al. Primary body cavity based AIDS-related lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;105:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Levine AM, Sullivan-Halley J, Pike MC, et al. HIV-related lymphoma: prognostic factors predictive of survival. Cancer 1991; 68: 2466–2472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Roithman R, Tourani JM, Andrieu JM. AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Lancet 1991;338:884–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pedersen C, Gerstoft J, Lundgren JD, et al. HIV-associated lymphoma: histopathology and association with Epstein-Barr virus genome related to clinical, immunological and prognostic features. Eur J Cancer 1991;27:1416–1423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    de Pond W, Said JW, Tasaka T, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8)-associated lymphoma of the bowel: Report of two cases in HIV-positive men with secondary effusion lymphomas. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:719–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cesarman E, Knowles DM. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV - 8): A lymphotropic human herpesvirus associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Semin Diag Pathol 1997;14:54–66Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pelicci PG, Knowles DM, Arlin Z, et al. Multiple monoclonal B-cell expansions and c-myc oncogene rearrangements in AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disorders: implications for lymphomagenesis. J Exp Med 1986; 164:2049–2060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Egerter DA, Beckstead JH. Malignant lymphomas in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: additional evidence for a B-cell origin. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1988;112:602609Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Subar M, Neri A, Inghirami G, Knowles DM, Dalla-Favera R. Frequent c-myc oncogene activation and infrequent presence of Epstein-Barr virus genome in AIDS-associated lymphoma. Blood 1988;72:667–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ballerini P, Gaidano G, Gong JZ, et al. Multiple genetic lesions in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 1993;81:166–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    McGrath MS, Shiramizu B, Meeker TC, Kaplan LD, Herndier B. AIDS-associated polyclonal lymphoma: Identification of a new HIV-associated disease process. J Acq Immune Defic Synch 1991;4:408–415Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Meeker TC, Shiramizu B, Kaplan L, et al. Evidence for molecular subtypes of HIV associated lymphoma: Division into peripheral monoclonal, polyclonal and central nervous system lymphoma. AIDS 1991;5:669–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shiramizu B, Herndier B, Meeker T, Kaplan L, McGrath M. Molecular and immunophenotypic characterization of AIDS-associated, Epstein-Barr virus-negative polyclonal lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaplan LD, Shiramizu B, Herndier B, et al. Influence of molecular characteristics on clinical outcome in human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: identification of a subgroup with favorable clinical outcome. Blood 1995;85:1727–1735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Seiden M, Sklar J. AIDS and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: A pre-B cell monoclonal lymphoma versus a novel mechanism of polyclonality. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1650–1651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nador RG, Chadburn A, Cesarman E, et al. Correlative morphologic and molecular genetic analysis of 74 AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gaidano G, Lo Coco F, Ye BH, Shibata D, et al. Rearrangements of the BCL-6 gene in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: association with diffuse large cell subtype. Blood 1994;84:397–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Delecluse HJ, Raphael M, Magaud JP, et al. Variable morphology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphomas with c-myc rearrangements. The French Study Group of Pathology for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Tumors. Blood 1993;82:552–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Carbone A, Tirelli U, Gloghini A, Volpe R, Boiocchi M. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated systemic lymphomas may be subdivided into two main groups according to Epstein-Barr viral latent gene expression. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:1674–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Carbone A, Gloghini A, Gaidano G, et al. AIDS-related Burkitt’s lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1995;103:561–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rooney CM, Gregory CD, Rowe M, et al. Endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma: phenotypic analysis of tumor biopsy cells and of derived tumor cell lines. J Nall Cancer Inst 1986;77:681–687Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rowe M, Rowe DT, Gregory CD, et al. Differences in B cell growth phenotype reflect novel patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene expression in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. EMBO J 1987;6:2743–2751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gaidano G, Dalla-Favera R. Molecular pathogenesis of AIDS-related lymphomas. Antibiot Chemother 1994;46:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Magrath IT. Burkitt’s lymphoma as a human tumor model: New concepts in etiology and pathogenesis. In: Pochedly C (ed): Pediatric Hem/Oncology Reviews. New York, NY, Praeger, 1985;1–57Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dalla-Favera R. Chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc oncogene and their role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasia. In Brugge J, Curran T, Harlow E, McCormick F(eds). Origins of Human Cancer. A Comprehensive Review. Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991; 543–551Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pelicci PG, Knowles DM, MaGrath I, Dalla-Favera R. Chromosomal breakpoints and structural alterations of the c-myc locus differ in endemic and sporadic forms of Burkitt lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:2984–2988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shiramizu B, Barriga F, Neequaye J, et al. Patterns of chromosomal breakpoint locations in Burkitt’s lymphoma: Relevance to geography and Epstein-Barr virus association. Blood 1991;77:1516–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lanfrancone L, Pelicci PG, Dalla-Favera R. Structure and expression of translocated c-myc oncogenes: specific differences in endemic, sporadic and AIDS-associated forms of Burkitt lymphomas. Current Topics Microbiol Immunol 1986;132:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Neri A, Barriga F, Knowles DM, MaGrath IT, Dalla-Favera R. Different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus are involved in chromosomal translocations in distinct pathogenetic forms of Burkitt lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:2748–2752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ye BH, Lista F, Lo Coco F, et al. Alterations of a zinc-finger encoding gene, BCL-6, in diffuse large cell-lymphoma. Science 1993;262:747–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cattoretti G, Chang CC, Cechova K, et al. BCL-6 protein is expressed in germinal center B cells. Blood 1995;86:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ye BH, Cattoretti G, Shen Q, et al. The BCL-6 proto-oncogene controls germinal center formation and Th2-type inflammation. Nature Genet 1997;16:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ye BH, Rao PH, Chaganti RSK, et al. Cloning of BCL-6, the locus involved in chromosome translocations affecting band 3q27 in B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Res 1993;53:2732–2735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Offit K, Jhanwar S, Ebrahim S, Filippa D, Clarkson BD, Chaganti RS. t(3;22)(g27;g11): a novel translocation associated with diffuse non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1989;74:1876–1879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bastard C, Tilly H, Lenormand B, et al. Translocations involving band 3q27 and Ig gene regions in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1992;79:2527–2531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lo Coco F, Ye BH, Lista F, et al. Rearrangements of the BCL6 gene in diffuse large cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1994,83:1757–1759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bos JL. Ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review. Cancer Res 1989;49:4682–4689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Neri A, Baldini L, Ferrero D, et al. Frequency and type of ras oncogenes in lymphoid malignancies. In: Molecular Diagnostics of Human Cancer. Cancer Cells vol. 7. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1989;101–105Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Neri A, Knowles DM, McCormick F, et al. Analysis of ras oncogene mutations in human lymphoid malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:9268–9272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Seremetis S, Inghirami G, Ferrero D, et al. Transformation and plasmacytoid differentiation of EBV-infected human B lymphoblasts by ras oncogenes. Science 1989;243:660–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Neri A, Murphy J, Cro L, et al. Ras oncogene mutation in multiple myeloma. J Exp Med 1989;170:1715–1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. bc1–1, t(11;14), and mantle cell-derived lymphomas. Blood 1991;78:259–263Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tsujimoto Y, Cossman J, Jaffe E, et al. Involvement of the bc1–2 gene in human follicular lymphoma. Science 1985;228:1440–1443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weiss LM, Warnke RA, Sklar J, et al. Molecular analysis of the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation in malignant lymphomas. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1185–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surveys 1990;9:529–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Harris CC. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science 1991;253:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Levine AJ, Momand J, Finlay CA. The p53 tumor suppressor gene. Nature 1991; 351:453–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Offit K, Wong G, Filippa DA, Tao Y, Chaganti RS. Cytogenetic analysis of 434 consecutively ascertained specimens of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: clinical correlations. Blood 1991;77:1508–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Baker SJ, Fearon ER, Nigro JM, et al. Chromosome 17 deletion and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Science 1989;244:217–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nigro JM, Baker SJ, Preisinger AC, et al. Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types. Nature 1989;342:705–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gaidano G, Ballerini P, Gong JZ, et al. p53 mutations in human lymphoid malignancies: Association with Burkitt’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:5413–5427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cesarman E, Chadburn A, Inghirami G, et al. Structural and functional analysis of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) reveals frequent p53 mutations. Blood 1992;80:3205–3216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gaidano G, Dalla-Favera R. Molecular pathogenesis of AIDS-related lymphomas. Adv Can Res 1995;67:113–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gaidano G, Dalla-Favera R. Molecular biology of lymphoid neoplasms. In: Mendelsohn J, Howley PM, Israel MA, Liotta LA (eds): The Molecular Basis of Cancer. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1995;251–272Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hayashi Y, Raimondi SC, Look AT, et al. Abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 1990;76:1626–1630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Millikin D, Meese E, Vogelstein B, Witkowski C, Trent J. Loss of heterozygosity for loci on the long arm of chromosome 6 in human malignant melanoma. Cancer Res 1991;51:5449–5453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Offit K, Parsa NZ, Gaidano G, et al. 6q deletions define distinct clinico-pathologic subsets of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1993;82:2157–2162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dryja TP, Rapaport JM, Joyce JM, Peterson RA. Molecular detection of deletions involving band q14 of chromosome 13 in retinoblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:7391–7394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ludlow JW, Shon J, Pipas JM, Livingston DM, De Caprio JA. The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product undergoes cell cycle-dependent dephosphorylation and binding to and release from SV40 large T. Cell 1990;60:387–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surveys 1990;9:529–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Haber MM, Inghirami G, Dalla-Favera R et al. Retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product expression in B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) and lymphoid leukemias (LLs). Lab Invest 1991; 64:73aGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gaidano G, Parsa NZ, Tassi V, et al. In vitro establishment of AIDS-related lymphoma cell lines: phenotypic characterization, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene lesions, and heterogeneity in Epstein-Barr virus infection. Leukemia 1993;7:1621–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Baumgartner J, Rachlin J, Rosenblum M, et al. Patterns of gene rearrangement in AIDS-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Proc ASCO 1989; 8:991Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gaidano G, Capello D, Cilia AM, et al. Genetic characterization of HHV-8/KSHVpositive primary effusion lymphoma reveals frequent mutations of BCL6: Implications for disease pathogenesis and histogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1999;24:16–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Migliazza A, Martinotti S, Chen W, et al. Frequent somatic hypermutation of the 5’ noncoding region of the BCL-6 gene in B-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:12520–12524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Matolcsy A, Nador RG, Cesarman E, Knowles DM. Immunoglobulin VH gene mutational analysis suggests that primary effusion lymphoma derive from different stages of B cell maturation. Am J Pathol 1998;153:1609–1614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Weinberg RA. Oncogenes, anti-oncogenes and the molecular bases of multistep carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1989;49:3713–3721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fearon ER, Vogelstein B. A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 1990;61:759–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Knowles DM. The molecular pathology of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Sem Diag Pathol 1997;14:67–82Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Fauci AS, Schnittman SM, Poli G, Koenig S, Pantaleo G. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:678–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schnittman SM, Lane HC, Higgins SE, et al. Direct polyclonal activation of human B lymphocytes by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus. Science 1986;233:1084–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Amariglio N, Vonsover A, Hakim I, et al. Immunoglobulin VH 3-positive AIDS-related Burkitt’s lymphoma: A possible role for the HIV gp120 superantigen. Acta Haematol 1994;91:103–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ng VL, Hurt MH, Fein CL, et al. IgMs produced by two acquired immune deficiency syndrome lymphoma cell lines: Ig binding specificity and VH-gene putative somatic mutation analysis. Blood 1994; 83:1067–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Penn I. Lymphomas complicating organ transplantation. Transplant Proc 1983;15(suppl):2790–2797Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Fauci AS. The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science 1988;239:617–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Fauci AS: Mechanisms of disease: The immuno-pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1993;328:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Moore RD, Kessler H, Richman DD, Flexner C, Chaisson RE. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients with advanced HIV infection treated with zidovudine. JAMA 1991;265:2208–2211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Pluda JM, Venzon DJ, Tosato G, et al. Parameters affecting the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:1099–1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H, et al. Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature 1986;324:73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Jelinek DF, Splawski JB, Lipsky PE. The roles of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma in human B cell activation, growth and differentiation. Eur J Immunol 1986;16:925–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Saeland S, Duvert V, Pandrau D, et al. Interleukin-7 induces the proliferation of normal human B cell precursors. Blood 1991;78:2229–2238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zlotnik A, Morre KW. Interleukin 10. Cytokine 1991;3:366–371Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Scala G, Quinto I, Ruocco MR, et al. Expression of an exogenous interleukin 6 gene in human Epstein-Barr virus B cells confers growth advantage and in vivo tumorigenicity. J Exp Med 1990;172:61–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Tanner J, Tosato G. Impairment of natural killer functions by interleukin 6 increases lymphoblastoid cell tumorigenicity in athymic mice. J Clin Invest 1991;88:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kishimoto T. The biology of interleukin-6. Blood 1989;74:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yee C, Biondi A, Wang XH, et al. A possible autocrine role of IL-6 in two lymphoma cell lines. Blood 1989;74:789–804Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kawano M, Hirano T, Matsuda T, et al. Autocrine generation and requirement of BSF2/IL-6 for human multiple myelomas. Nature 1988;332:83–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Nakajima K, Martinez-Maza O, Hirano T, et al. Induction of IL-6 (B cell stimulatory factor-2/IFN-beta-2) production by human immunodeficiency virus. J Immunol 1989;142:531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Emilie D, Peuchmaur M, Maillot MC, et al. Production of interleukins in human immunodeficiency virus-l-replicating lymph nodes. J Clin Invest 1990;86:148–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Birx DL, Redfield RR, Tencer K, Fowler A, Burke DS, Tosato G. Induction of interleukin-6 during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 1990;76: 2303–2310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Breen EC, Rezai AR, Nakajima K, et al. Infection with HIV is associated with elevated IL-6 levels and production. J Immunol 1990;144:480–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Emilie D, Coumbaras J, Raphael M, et al. Interleukin-6 production in high-grade B lymphomas: Correlation with presence of malignant immunoblasts in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in human immunodeficiency virus seronegative patients. Blood 1992;80:498–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Benjamin D, Knobloch TJ, Abrams J, et al. Human B cell IL-10: B cell lines derived from patients with AIDS and Burkitt’s lymphoma constitutively secrete large quantities of IL-10. Blood 1991;78:384aGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Fiorentino DF, Zlotnik A, Vieira P, et al. IL-10 acts on the antigen-presenting cell to inhibit cytokine production by Thl cells. J Immunol 1991;146:3444–3451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    de Waal Malefyt R, Haanen J, Spits H, et al. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 strongly reduce antigen-specific human T cell proliferation by diminishing the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes via downregulation of class II major histocompatibility complex expression. J Exp Med 1991;174:915–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Go BNF, Castle BE, Barrett R, et al. Interleukin 10, a novel B cell stimulatory factor: unresponsiveness of X chromosome-linked immunodeficiency B cells. J Exp Med 1990;172:1625–1631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rousset F, Garcia E, Defrance T, et al. Interleukin 10 is a potent growth and differentiation factor for activated human B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:1890–1893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Klein G, Klein E. Evolution of tumors and the impact of molecular oncology. Nature 1985;315:190–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Purtilo DT, Klein G. Introduction to Epstein-Barr virus and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunodeficient individuals. Cancer Res 1981;41:4209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Peiper SC, Myers JL, Broussard EE, Sixbey JW. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in archival tissues by polymerase chain reaction. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1990;114:711–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Birx DL, Redfield RR, Tosato G. Defective regulation of Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related disorders. N Engl J Med 1986;14:874–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tosato G, Blaese RM. Epstein-Barr virus infection and immunoregulation in man. Adv Immunol 1985;37:99–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Groopman J, Sullivan JL, Mulder C, et al. Pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma in a patient with AIDS. Blood 1986;67:612–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Raphael M, Audouin J, et al. In situ demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs (EBER 1) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: correlation with tumor morphology and primary site. Blood 1993;82:619–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Neri A, Barriga F, Knowles DM, Neequaye J, Magrath IT, Dalla-Favera R. Epstein-Barr virus infection precedes clonal expansion in Burkitt’s and AIDS-associated lymphoma. Blood 1991;77:1092–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Shibata D, Weiss LM, Hernandez AM, Nathwani BN, Bernstein L, Levine AM. Epstein-Barr virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Blood 1993;81:2102–2109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Chaganti RSK, Jhanwar SC, Koziner B, Arlin Z, Mertelsman R, Clarkson B. Specific translocations characterize Burkitt’s-like lymphoma of homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood 1983;61:1265–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lombardi L, Newcomb EW, Dalla-Favera R. Pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma: expression of an activated c-myc oncogene causes the tumorigenic conversion of EBV-infected human B lymphoblasts. Cell 1987;49:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Horenstein MG, Nador RG, Chadburn A, et al. Epstein-Barr virus latent gene expression in primary effusion lymphomas containing Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8. Blood 1997;90:1186–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Roizman B: Herpesviridae: A brief introduction. In Fields BN (ed): Virology. New York, NY, Raven Press, 1990;1787–1793Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Fleckenstein B, Desrosiers RC. Herpesvirus saimiri and herpesvirus ateles. In: Roizman B(ed): The Herpesviruses. New York, NY, Plenum Press, 1982; 253–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Biesinger B, Muller-Fleckenstein J, Simmer B, et al. Stable growth transformation of human T lymphocytes by herpesvirus saimiri. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:3116–3119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cesarman E, Nador RG, Bai F, et al. KSHV/HHV-8 contains G protein-coupled receptor and cyclin D homologues which are expressed in Kaposi’s sarcoma and malignant lymphoma. J Virol 1996;70:8218–8223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Chang Y, Moore PS, Talbot SJ, et al. Cyclin encoded by KS herpesvirus. Nature 1996;382:410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Arvanitakis L, Geras-Raaka E, Gershengorn MC, Cesarman E KS herpesvirus encodes a constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor linked to cell proliferation. Nature 1997;385:347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Tsujimoto Y, Finger LR, Yunis J, et al. Cloning of the chromosome breakpoint of neoplastic B cells with the t(14:18) chromosome translocation. Science 1984;226:1097–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Young D, Waitches G, Birchmeier C, Fasano O, Wigler M. Isolation and characterization of a new cellular oncogene encoding a protein with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Cell 1986;45:711–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zhang YJ, Jiang W, Chen CJ, et al. Amplification and overexpression of cyclin D1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (United States) 1993;196:1010–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Russo D, Arturi F, Schlumberger M, et al. Activating mutations of the TSH receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene 1995;11:1907–1911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Russo JJ, Bohenzky RA, Chien M-C, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93: 14862–14867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bortsch B, Ellinger K, Neipel F, et al. Lymphadenitis and lymphoproliferative lesions associated with the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Virch Arch B Cell Pathol 1991;61:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Karp JE, Broder S. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer Res 1991; 51:4743–4756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Torelli G, Marasca R, Luppi M, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 in human lymphomas: identification of specific sequences in Hodgkin’s lymphomas by polymerase chain reaction. Blood 1991;77:2251–2258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Metroka CE, Cunningham-Rundles S, Pollack MS, et al. Generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men. Ann Intern Med 1983;99:585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Mathur-Wagh U, Enlow RW, Spigland I, et al. Longitudinal study of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men: relation to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1984;i:1033–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Berek C, Milstein C. Mutation drift and repertoire shift in the maturation of the immune response. Immunol Rev 1987;96:23–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bahler DW, Levy R. Clonal evolution of a follicular lymphoma: evidence for antigen selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:6770–6774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zelenetz AD, Chen TT, Levy R. Clonal expansion in follicular lymphoma occurs subsequent to antigenic selection. J Exp Med 1992;176:1137–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Riboldi P, Gaidano G, Schettino EW, et al. Two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Burkitt’s lymphomas produce specific anti-i IgM cold agglutinins using somatically mutated VH4–21 segments. Blood 1994;83:2952–2961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Levine AM, Gill PS, Krailo M, et al. Natural history of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) in gay men: Risk of lymphoma and factors associated with development of lymphoma. Blood 1986;68:130aGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Shibata D, Weiss LM, Nathwani BN, Brynes RK, Levine AM. Epstein-Barr virus in benign lymph node biopsies from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus is associated with concurrent or subsequent development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1991;77:1527–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Alonso ML, Richardson ME, Metroka CE, et al. Chromosome abnormalities in AIDS-associated lymphadenopathy. Blood 1987;69:855–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Mathur-Wagh U, Mildvan D, Senie RT. Follow-up at 4 1/2 years on homosexual men with generalized lymphadenopathy. N Engl J Med 1985;313:1542–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Inghirami G, Grignan F, Sternas L, et al. Down-regulation of LFA-1 adhesion receptors by c-myc oncogene in human B lymphoblastoid cells. Science 1990;250:682–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Clayberger C, Wright A, Medeiros LJ, Koller TD, Link MP. Absence of cell surface LFA-1 as a mechanism of escape from immunosurveillance. Lancet 1987;2:533–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Inghirami G, Wieczorek R, Zhu BY, Silber R, Dalla-Favera R, Knowles DM. Differential expression of LFA-1 molecules in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia. Blood 1988;72:1431–1434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Robert NJ, Schneiderman H Hodgkin’s disease and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:142–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Schoeppel JL, Hoppe RT, Dorfman RF, et al. Hodgkin’s disease in homosexual men with generalized lymphadenopathy. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Scheib RG, Siegel RS. Atypical Hodgkin’s disease and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Colby TV, Hoppe RT, Warnke RA. Hodgkin’s disease: a clinicopathologic study of 659 cases. Cancer 1982;49:1848–1858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Davis S, Dahlberg S, Myers MH, et al. Hodgkin’s disease in the United States: a comparison of patient characteristics and survival in the centralized cancer patient data system and the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987;78:471–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Riyat MS. Hodgkin’s disease in Kenya. Cancer 1992;69:1047–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hu E, Hufford S, Lukes R, et al. Third world Hodgkin’s disease at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1285–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Prior E, Goldberg AF, Conjalka MS, Chapman WE, Tay S, Ames ED. Hodgkin’s disease in homosexual men: an AIDS-related phenomenon? Am J Med 1986;81:1085–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Andrieu JM, Roithmann S, Tourani JM, et al. Hodgkin’s disease during HIV1 infection: the French Registry experience. Ann Oncol 1993;4:635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Tirelli U, Errante D, Dolcetti R, et al. Hodgkin’s disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinicopathologic and virologic features of 114 patients from the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and tumors. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:1758–1767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Serrano M, Bellas C, Campo E, et al. Hodgkin’s disease in patients with antibodies to human inununodeficiency virus: a study of 22 patients. Cancer 1990;65:2248–2254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Alfonso PG, Sanudo EF, Carretero JM, et al. Hodgkin’s disease in HIV-infected patients. Biomed Pharmacother 1988;42:321–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Serraino D, Carbone A, Franceschi S, Tirelli U for the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumours. Increased frequency of lymphocyte depletion and mixed cellularity subtypes of Hodgkin’s disease in HIV-infected patients. Eur J Cancer 1993;29A:1948–1950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Doyle TJ, Venkatachalam KK, Maeda K, Saeed SM, Tilchen EJ. Hodgkin’s disease in renal transplant recipients. Cancer 1983;51:245–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rubio R. Hodgkin’s disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Cancer 1994;73:2400–2407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Robinson LL, Stoker V, Frizzera G, Heinitz K, Meadows AT, Filipovich AH. Hodgkin’s disease in pediatric patients with naturally occurring immunodeficiency. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1987;9:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Pelstring RJ, Zellmer RB, Sulak LE, Banks PM, Clare N. Hodgkin’s disease in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Cancer 1991;67:1865–1873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Knowles DM, Halper JP, Jakobiec FA. T-lymphocyte subpopulations in B-cell derived non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 1984;56:644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Knowles DM, Neri A, Pelicci PG, et al. Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangement analysis of Hodgkin’s disease: implications for lineage determination and differential diagnosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:7942–7946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Linden MD, Fishleder AJ, Katzin WE, Tubbs RR. Absence of B-cell or T-cell clonal expression in nodular, lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s disease. Hum Pathol 1988;19:591–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Pallesen G, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Rowe M, Young LS. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene products in tumour cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Lancet 1991;337:320–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Armstrong AA, Weiss LM, Gallagher A, et al. Criteria for the definition of Epstein-Barr virus association in Hodgkin’s disease. Leukemia 1992;6:869–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Carbone A, Gloghini A, Zanette I, et al. Co-expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein and vimentin in “aggressive” histological subtypes of Hodgkin’s disease. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1993;422:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    O’Grady J, Stewart S, Elton RA, Krajewski AS. Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin’s disease and site of origin of tumour. Lancet 1994;343:265–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Briere J, Beldjord K, Belkaid MI, et al. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) markers in 46 Hodgkin’s disease (HD) patients from France and Algeria. Blood 1992;80(Suppl 1):465Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Glaser SL. Hodgkin’s disease in a black population: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Sem Oncol 1990;17: 643–659Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Uccini S, Monardo F, Stoppacciaro A, et al. High frequency of Epstein-Barr virus genome detection in Hodgkin’s disease of HIV-positive patients. Int J Cancer 1990;46:581–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Audouin J, Diebold J, Pallesen G. Frequent expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in tumour cells of Hodgkin’s disease in HIV-positive patients. J Pathol 1992;167:381–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel M. Knowles
    • 1
  1. 1.Weill Medical College of Cornell UniversityAmerica

Personalised recommendations