Growth Hormone and Exercise Performance

  • William B. Wehrenberg
  • Lisa K. Conley
  • Filippo Manelli
  • Andrea Giustina
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 9)

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic and lipolityc agent that also affects carbohydrate metabolism (1). The anabolic actions of GH are evident in GH deficient children who start to grow rapidly when GH is administered (2). In adults the anabolic nature of GH is dramatically exhibited by patients with acromegaly, and indirectly by subjects with GH deficiency (GHD) (3,4). The exercise is an important factor, as well as age, gender and nutrition, that regulates GH secretion (5). Therefore, it should be of no surprise that GH, and its tissue mediator IGF-I, in turn appear to have important roles in the physiologic response to exercise. No where is this latter notion better supported than in exercise-related studies conducted in individuals who exhibit altered GH tone. We now turn our attention to the effects of elevated and decreased circulating GH concentrations on exercise performance and to the effects of GH replacement or supplementation on exercise performance in GHD and in normal subjects.

Keywords

Placebo Cholesterol Fatigue Carbohydrate Radionuclide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Raben M. Growth hormone. N Engl J Med 1962; 266:31–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abs R, Bengtsson BA, Hemberg-Stahl E, Monson JP, Tauber JP, Wilton P, Wuster C. GH replacement in 1034 growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults: demographic and clinical characteristics, dosing and safety. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999;50(6):703–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Melmed S. Acromegaly. N Engl J Med 1990;22:966–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jorgensen JOL, Pedersen SA, Thuesen L, Jorgensen J, Ingemann Hansen T, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment in GH-deficient adults. Lancet 1989;1:1221–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giustina A, Veldhuis JD. Pathophysiology of the neuroregulation of growth hormone secretion in experimental animals and the human. Endocr Rev 1998;19:717–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colao A, Cuocolo A, Marzullo P, Nicolai E, Ferone D, Della Morte AM, Petretta M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G. Impact of patient’s age and disease duration on cardiac performance in acromegaly: A radionuclide angiography study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1518–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lombardi G, Colao A, Ferone D, Marzullo P, Orio F, Longobardi S, Merola B. Effect of growth hormone on cardiac function. Horm Res 1997;48:S38–S42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fazio S, Cittadini A, Sabatini D, Merola B, Colao A, Biondi B, Lombardi G, Sacca L. Evidence for biventricular involvement in acromegaly: A Doppler echocardiographic study. Eur Heart J 1993;14:26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giustina A, Zaltieri G, Negrini F, Wehrenberg WB. The pharmacological aspects of the treatment of acromegaly. Pharmacol Res 1996;34:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colao A, Cuocolo A, Marzullo P, Nicolai E, Ferone D, Florimonte L, Salvatore M, Lombardi G. Effects of 1 year treatment with octreotide on cardiac performance in patients with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    O’Keefe JC, Grant SJ, Wiseman JC, Stiel JN, Wilmshurst EG, Cooper RA, Edwards AC. Acromegaly and the heart: echocardiographic and nuclear imaging studies. Aust N Z J Med 1982;12:603–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pereira JL, Rodriguez-Puras MJ, Leal-Cerro A, Martinez A, Garcia-Luna PP, Gavilan I, Pumar A, Astorga R. Acromegalic cardiopathy improves after treatment with increasing dose of octreotide. J Endocrinol Invest 1991;14:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giustina A, Boni E, Romanelli G, Grassi V, Giustina G. Cardiopulmonary performance during exercise in acromegaly, and effects of acute suppression of growth hormone hypersecretion with octreotide. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:1042–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Padayatty SJ, Perrin EJ, Belchetz PE. Octreotide treatment increases exercise capacity in patients with acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;134:554–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morange-Ramos PCI, Cogne M, Jaquet P. Three years follow-up of acromegalic patients treated with intramuscolar slow-release lanreotide: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Manelli F, Desenzani P, Boni E, Bugari G, Negrini F, Romanelli G, Grassi V, Giustina A. Cardiovascular effects of a single slow release lanreotide injection in patients with acromegaly and left ventricular hypertrophy. Pituitary 1999;2:205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cuneo RC, Salomon F, McGauley GA, Sonksen PH. The growth hormone deficiency syndrome in adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 1992;37:387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fazio S, Cittadini A, Sabatini D, Merola B, Colao A, Biondi B, Longobardi S, Lombardi G, Sacca L. Growth hormone and heart performance. A novel mechanism of cardiac wall stress regulation in humans. Eur Heart J 1997;18:181–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cittadini A, Cuocolo A, Merola B, Fazio S, Sabatini D, Nicolai E, Colao A, Longobardi S, Lombardi G, Sacca L. Impaired cardiac performance in growth hormone deficient adults and its improvement after growth hormone replacement. Am J Physiol 1994;267:E219–E225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cuocolo A, Nicolai E, Colao A, Longobardi S, Cardei S, Fazio S, Merola B, Lombardi G, Sacca L, Salvatore M. Improved left ventricular function after growth hormone in patients with hypopituitarism. Assessment with radionuclide angiography. Eur J Nuci Med 1996;23:390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Forbes GB, Reina JC. Adult lean body mass declines with age: Some longitudinal observations. Metabolism 1970;19:653–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Mazess RB, Offord KP, Melton LJ. Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging. J Clin Invest 1981;67:328–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Lalitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schlenker RA, Cohn L, Rudman 1W, Mattson DE. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old N Engl J Med 1990;323:1–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Corpas E, Harman SM, Blackman MR. Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocrine Rev 1993;14:20–39.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jorgensen JOL, Thuesen L, Muller J, Oyesen P, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS. Three years growth hormone treatment in growth hormone deficient adults. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;130:224–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Wiles CM, Hesp R, Sonksen PH. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone deficient adults. I. Effects on muscle mass and strength. J Appl Physiol 1991;70:688–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Wiles CM, Hesp R, Sonksen PH. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone deficient adults. III. Effects on exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 1991;70:695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jorgenson JOL, Pedersen SA, Thuesen L, et al. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatments in GH\_deficient adults. Lancet 1989;1:1221–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ter Maaten JC, De Boer H, Kamp O, Stuurman L, Van Der Veen EA. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2373–2380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rudman D, Kutner MH, Rogers CM, Lubin MF, Fleming A, Bain R. Impaired growth hormone secretion in the adult population. J Clin Invest 1981;67:1361–1369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yarasheski KE, Campbell JA, Smith K, Rennie MJ, Holloszy JO, Bier DM. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men. Am J Physiol 1992;262:E261–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taaffe DR, Pruitt L, Reim J, Hintz RL, Butterfield G, Hoffman AR, Marcus R. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on the muscle strength response to resistance exercise in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:1361–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yarasheski KE, Zachwieja JJ, Campbell JA, Bier DM. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth and strength in older men. Am J Physiol 1995;268:E268–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Savine R, Sonksen PH. Is the somatopause an indication for growth hormone replacement? J Endocrinol Invest 1999;22:142–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Macintyre JG. Growth hormone and athletes. Sport Med 1987;4:129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frisch H. Growth hormone and body composition in athletes. J Endocrinol Invest 1999;22:106–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yarasheski KE. Growth hormone effects on metabolism, body composition, muscle mass, and strength. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1994;22:285–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clarkson PM, Thompson HS. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations. Sports Med 1997;24(6):366–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wu Z, Bidlingmaier M, Dall R, Strasburger CJ. Detection of doping with human growth hormone. Lancet 1999;13:895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sacca L, Cittadini A, Fazio S. Growth hormone and the heart. Endocr Rev 1994;15:555–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bigland B, Jehring B. Muscle performance in rats, normal, and treated with growth hormone. J Physiol 1952;129:136.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Salomen F, Cuneo RC, Hesp R, Sonksen PH. The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1797–1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salomon F, Cuneo RC, Hesp R, Sonksen PH. The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1797–1803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rodriguez-Arnao J, Jabbar A, Fuicher K, Besser GM, Ross RIM. Effects of growth hormone replacement on physical performance and body composition in GH deficient adults. Clin Endocrinol 1999;51:53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Naugelsparen M, Trickey R, Davies MJ, Jenkins JS. Muscle changes in acromegaly. Brit Med J 1976;2:914–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Wehrenberg
    • 1
  • Lisa K. Conley
    • 1
  • Filippo Manelli
    • 2
  • Andrea Giustina
    • 2
  1. 1.Forestry and Life SciencesClemson University College of AgricultureClemsonSouth Carolina
  2. 2.Dept of Internal MedicineUniversity of BresciaItaly

Personalised recommendations