Budget and Source Inventories

Issues and Challenges
  • G H Eduljee


Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that are resistant to degradation via mechanisms such as photolysis, chemical attack or biological action. Introduction of these chemicals into the environment can result in their accumulation in soils, sediments, and in human and ecological foodchains, where they can induce toxic effects in humans and the environment. POPs are almost entirely man-made, and according to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) over 300 chemicals with properties that would classify them as POPs are subject to bans or other controls in one or more countries worldwide. They include pesticides such as DDT, mirex, aldrin and lindane, and industrial chemicals or byproducts such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).


Municipal Solid Waste Emission Factor Emission Inventory United Nations Environment Program Deposition Flux 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcock R E, Behnisch P A, Jones K C, Hagenmaier H (1998a). Dioxin-like PCBs in the environment — human exposure and the significance of sources. Chemosphere, 37: 1457–1472.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock R E, Gemmill R, Jones K C (1998b). Improvements to the UK PCDD/F and PCB atmospheric emission inventory following an emissions measurement programme. Chemosphere, 38: 759–770.Google Scholar
  3. Ayris S, Harrad S J (1999). The Fate and Persistence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil, J. Environ. Monit., 1: 395–402.Google Scholar
  4. Ballschmiter K, Buchert H, Niemczyk R, Munder A, Swerev M (1986). Automobile exhausts versus municipal waste incineration as sources of the polychloro-dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and -furans (PCDF) found in the environment. Chemosphere, 15: 901–916.Google Scholar
  5. Benestad C, Hagen I, Jebens A, Oehme M, Ramdahl T (1990). Emissions of organic micropollutants from discontinuously operated municipal waste incinerators. Waste Manage. Res., 8: 193–201.Google Scholar
  6. Benkovitz C M, Oden N L (1989). Individual versus averaged estimates of parameters used in large scale emissions inventories. Atmos. Environ., 23: 903–909.Google Scholar
  7. Berdowski J J M, Baas J, Bloos J J, Visschedijk A J H, Zandveld P Y J (1997). The European Atmospheric Emission Inventory of Heavy Metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants for 1990. Umweltbundesamt, Berlin.Google Scholar
  8. Bidleman T F, Jantunen L M M, Wiberg K, Harner T, Brice K A, Su K, Falconer R L, Leone A D, Aigner E J, Parkhurst W J (1998). Soil as a source of atmospheric heptachlor epoxide. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 1546–1548.Google Scholar
  9. Bingham A G (1991). PCDD and PCDF Impurities in Sodium Pentachlorophenate Based Antisapstains. NECAL Service Report S91/328, Department of Health, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  10. Bremmer H J, Hesseling W F M (1991). Inventarisatie van processen waarbij dioxines kunnen ontstaan. Report No. 730501010, RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Bremmer H J, Troost L M, Kuipers G, de Koning J, Sein A A (1994). Emissions of Dioxins in the Netherlands. Report No. 770501018, RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. Brzuzy L P, Hites R A (1995). Estimating the atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 29: 2090–2098.Google Scholar
  13. Buekens A, Cornells E, Huang H, Dewettinck T (1998). Fingerprints of dioxins from thermal industrial processes. Organohalogen Compds., 36: 123–126.Google Scholar
  14. CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (1997). The European Dioxin Inventory, Final Report, June 1997. Prepared by North Rhine Westphalia State Environment Agency on behalf of DG XI of the CEC.Google Scholar
  15. Cole D C, Eyles J, Gibson B (1998). Indicators of human health in ecosystems: what do we measure? Sci. Tot. Environ., 224: 201–213.Google Scholar
  16. Cowan C E, Mackay D, Feijtel T C J, van de Meent D, di Guardo A, Davies J, Mackay N (1995). The Multi-Media Fate Model: A Vital Tool for Predicting the Fate of Chemicals. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Florida.Google Scholar
  17. Cudahy J J, Rigo H G (1998). National annual dioxin emissions estimate for hazardous waste incinerators. J Air Waste Manage. Assoc, 48: 1107–1111.Google Scholar
  18. Czuczwa J M, Niessen F, Hites R A (1985). Historical record of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Swiss lake sediments. Chemosphere, 14: 1175–1179.Google Scholar
  19. De Fré R, Wevers M (1998). Underestimation in dioxin emission inventories. Organohalogen Compds., 36: 17–20.Google Scholar
  20. Devillers J, Bintein S, Karcher W (1995). CHEMFRANCE: A regional Level III fugacity model applied to France. Chemosphere, 30: 457–476.Google Scholar
  21. Devillers J, Karcher W, Isnard P (1991). Graphical display of the fugacity model Level I. Chemosphere, 23: 633–642.Google Scholar
  22. Douben P E T, Eduljee G H, Dyke P (1995). A review of potential PCDD and PCDF emission sources in the UK. Organohalogen Compds., 24: 131–136.Google Scholar
  23. Dyke P, Coleman P, James R (1997). Dioxins in ambient air, bonfire night. Chemosphere, 34: 1191–1201.Google Scholar
  24. Eduljee G H (1987). Comment on “airborne dioxins and dibenzofurans: sources and fates.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 21: 922–924.Google Scholar
  25. Eduljee G H (1988). PCBs in the environment. Chem. Br., 24: 241–244.Google Scholar
  26. Eduljee G H, Dyke P (1996). An updated inventory of potential PCDD and PCDF emission sources in the UK. Sci. Tot. Environ., 177: 303–321.Google Scholar
  27. Eisenberg J N S, Bennett D H, McKone T E (1998). Chemical dynamics of persistent organic pollutants: a sensitivity analysis relating soil concentration levels to atmospheric emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 115–123.Google Scholar
  28. Evers E H G, Laane R W P M, Groeneveld G J J, Olie K (1996). Levels, temporal trends and risk of dioxins and related compounds in the Dutch aquatic environment. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 117–122.Google Scholar
  29. Falconer R, Leone A, Bodnar C, Wiberg K, Bidleman T, Jantunen L, Harner T, Parkhurst W, Alegria H, Brice K, Su K (1998). Using enantiomeric ratios to determine sources of chlordane to ambient air. Organohalogen Compds., 35: 331–334.Google Scholar
  30. Fattore E, Benfenati E, Mariani G, Fanelli R, Evers E H G (1997). Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments from the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Environ. Sci. Technol., 31: 1777–1784.Google Scholar
  31. Fiedler H, Lau C, Kjeller L-O, Rappe C (1996). Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans found in soil and sediment samples in Southern Mississippi. Chemosphere, 32: 421–432.Google Scholar
  32. Friesel P, Sievers S, Fiedler H, Gras B, Lau C, Reich T, Rippen G, Schacht U, Vanrenholt F (1996). Dioxin mass balance for the city of Hamburg, Germany. Part 4: Follow up study — trends of PCDD/PCDF fluxes. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 89–94.Google Scholar
  33. Hagenmaier H, Brunner H, Haag R, Berchtold A (1986). PCDDs and PCDFs in sewage sludge, river and lake sediments from south west Germany. Chemosphere, 15: 1421–1428.Google Scholar
  34. Hagenmaier H, Krauss P (1993). Attempts to balance transport and fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for Baden-Wurttemberg. Organohalogen Compds., 12: 81–84.Google Scholar
  35. Hagenmaier H, Walczok M (1996). Time trends in levels, patters and profiles for PCDD/PCDF in sediment cores of Lake Constance. Organohalogen Compels., 28: 101–104.Google Scholar
  36. Harrad S J (1996). Sources and fates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. Issues in Environ. Sci. Technol., 6: 1–15.Google Scholar
  37. Harrad S J, Jones K C (1992). A source inventory and budget for chlorinated dioxins and furans in the United Kingdom environment. Sci. Tot. Environ., 26: 89–107.Google Scholar
  38. Harrad S J, Sewart A P, Alcock R, Boumphrey R, Burnett V, Duarte-Davidson R, Halsall C, Sanders G, Waterhouse K, Wild S R, Jones K C (1994). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environ. Poll., 85: 131–146.Google Scholar
  39. Hattemer-Frey H A, Travis C C (1989). Pentachlorophenol: environmental partitioning and human exposure. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 18: 482–489.Google Scholar
  40. Hillery B R, Simcik M F, Basu I, Hoff R M, Burniston D, Chan C H, Brice K A, Sweet C W, Hites R A (1998). Atmospheric deposition of toxic pollutants to the Great Lakes as measured by the integrated atmospheric deposition network. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 2216–2221.Google Scholar
  41. Horstmann M (1994). Untersuchungen zu nicht-industrielien Quellen von Polychlorierten Dibenzo-p-Dioxinen (PCDD) und Polychlorierten Dibenzofuranen (PCDF) in einem Kommunalen Entwüsserungssystem. Dissertation, Shaker Verlag, Aachen.Google Scholar
  42. Jacobs C M J, van Pul W A J (1996). Long Range Atmospheric transport of Persistent Organic Pollutants, I: Description of Surface — Atmosphere Exchange Modules and Implementation in EUROS. Report No. 722401013, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  43. Jager J (1993). PCDD/F and PCB emission from steel producing, processing and reclamation plants with varying input. Toxicol Environ. Chem., 40: 201–211.Google Scholar
  44. Kallenborn R, Oehme M, Wynn-Williams D D, Schlabach M, Harris J (1998). Ambient air levels and atmospheric long range transport of persistent organochlorines to Signy Island, Antarctica. Sci. Tot. Environ., 220: 167–180.Google Scholar
  45. Kawakami I, Matsuzawa Y, Watanabe I, Tanaka M, Hiraoka M (1993). Reduction of dioxin emitted from intermittent operation MSW incinerators. Organohalogen Compds., 12: 57–62.Google Scholar
  46. Kao A S, Venkataraman C (1995). Estimating the contribution of reentrainment to the atmospheric deposition of dioxins. Chemosphere, 31: 4317–4331.Google Scholar
  47. Kjeller L-O (1998). Source separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans based on temporal composition variation and multivariate data analysis. In Sources and Environmental Behaviours of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans: Anthropogenic Chloroorganics versus Combustion, and Historical Approach, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, University of Umea, Sweden.Google Scholar
  48. Kjeller L-O, Jones K C, Johnston A E, Rappe C (1996). Evidence for a decline in atmospheric emissions on PCDD/Fs in the UK. Environ. Sci. Technol., 30: 1398–1403.Google Scholar
  49. Kjeller L-O, Rappe C (1995). Time trends in levels, patterns and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in a sediment core from the Baltic Proper. Environ. Sci. Technol., 29: 346–355.Google Scholar
  50. Knap A H, Binkley K S (1991). Chlorinated organic compounds in the troposphere over the western North Atlantic Ocean measured by aircraft. Atmos. Environ., 25A, 1507–1516.Google Scholar
  51. Lau C, Fiedler H, Hutzinger O, Rippen G, Wesp H F, Sievers S, Friesel P, Schacht U, Gras B, Reich T, Vanrenholt F (1996a). Dioxin mass balance for the city of Hamburg, Germany. Part 1: Objective of the study and emission inventory. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 83–88.Google Scholar
  52. Lau C, Fiedler H, Hutzinger O, Rippen G, Wesp H F, Sievers S, Schacht U, Friesel P, Gras B, Vanrenholt F (1996b). Dioxin mass balance for the city of Hamburg, Germany. Part 2: Flux of PCDD/PCDF with liquid and solid wastes. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 237–242.Google Scholar
  53. Lemieux P M, Ryan J V (1993). Characterisation of air pollutants emitted from a simulated scrap tire fire. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc, 43: 1106–1115.Google Scholar
  54. Lorenz W, Wichmann H, Bahadir M (1996). Bilanzierung der Friesetzung von polychlorierten dibenzo-p-dioxinen und dibenzofuranen bei Brandunfallen — ein diskussionsbeitrag. Gefahrstoffe — Reinhaltung der Luft, 56: 49–53.Google Scholar
  55. Mackay D (1991). Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.Google Scholar
  56. Mackay D, di Guardo A, Paterson S, Kicsi G, Cowan C E, Kane D M (1996). Assessment of chemical fate in the environment using evaluative regional and local-scale models: illustrative application to chlorobenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15: 1638–1648.Google Scholar
  57. Mackay D, Paterson S (1991). Evaluating the multimedia fate of organic chemicals: a Level III fugacity model. Environ. Sci. Technol., 25: 427–436.Google Scholar
  58. Mackay D, Paterson S, Cheung B (1985a). Evaluating the environmental behaviour of chemicals: the fugacity Level III approach as applied to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Chemosphere, 14: 859–863.Google Scholar
  59. Mackay D, Paterson S, Cheung B, Neely W B (1985b). Evaluating the environmental behaviour of chemicals with a Level III fugacity model. Chemosphere, 14: 335–374.Google Scholar
  60. Mackay D, Shiu W Y, Ma K C (1992a). Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Compounds. Volume I: Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons, Chlorobenzenes and PCBs. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  61. Mackay D, Shiu W Y, Ma K C (1992b). Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Compounds. Volume II: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Poly chlorinated Dioxins and Dibenzofurans. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  62. Mackay D, Wania F (1995). Transport of contaminants to the Artie: partitioning, processes and models. Sci. Tot. Environ., 160/161: 225–38.Google Scholar
  63. Meharg A A, Osborn D (1995). Dioxins released from chemical accidents. Nature, 375: 353–354.Google Scholar
  64. Palmer F H, Sapudar R A, Heath J A, Richard N J, Bowes G W (1988). Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Contamination in California from Chlorophenol Wood Preservative Use. Report No. 88-55WQ, California State Water Resources Control Board.Google Scholar
  65. Päpke O, Ball M, Lis Z A, Scheunert K (1989). PCDD and PCDF in indoor air of kindergartens in Northern W Germany. Chemosphere, 18: 617–626.Google Scholar
  66. Paterson S, Mackay D (1989). A model illustrating the environmental fate, exposure and human uptake of persistent organic chemicals. Ecol Model, 47: 85–114.Google Scholar
  67. Paustenbach D, Wenning R J, Mathur D, Luksemburg W (1996). PCDD/PCDFs in urban stormwater discharged to San Francisco Bay, California USA. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 111–116.Google Scholar
  68. Pearson R F, Swackhamer D L, Eisenreich S J, Long D T (1997). Assessing the importance of atmospheric deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Great Lakes: compositional comparisons of PCDD/F sedimentary accumulations. Organohalogen Compds., 33: 76–81.Google Scholar
  69. Pentachlorophenol Task Force (1997). Analysis of the long range transboundary air transport potential of pentachlorophenol. Report prepared by the Weinberg Group Inc., Washington DC.Google Scholar
  70. Qua U, Fermann M W, Bröker G (1998). Steps towards an European dioxin emission inventory. Organohalogen Compds., 36: 7–10.Google Scholar
  71. Rappe C (1992). Sources of exposure, environmental levels and exposure assessment of PCDDs and PCDFs. Chemosphere, 27: 211–226.Google Scholar
  72. Rappe C, Andersson R, Bergqvist P-A, Brohede C, Hansson M, Kjeller L-O, Lindstrom G, Marklund S, Nygren M, Swanson S E, Tysklind M, Wiberg K (1987). Sources and relative importance of PCDD and PCDF emissions. Waste Manage. Res., 5: 225–237.Google Scholar
  73. Rappe C, Kjeller L-O, Kulp S-E, de Wit C, Hasselsten I, Palm O (1991). Levels, profiles and pattern of PCDDs and PCDFs in samples related to the production and use of chlorine. Chemosphere, 23: 1629–1636.Google Scholar
  74. Rappe C, Marklund S, Kjeller L-O, Lindskog A (1989). Long range transport of PCDDs and PCDFs on airborne particles. Chemosphere, 1.8: 1283–1290.Google Scholar
  75. Reich S, Jiménez B, Marsili L, Hernández L M, Schurig V, González M J (1998). Enantiomeric ratios of chiral PCBs in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea. Organohalogen Compels., 35: 335–338.Google Scholar
  76. Riss A, Aichinger H (1993). Reduction of dioxin emissions and regulatory measures in Austria. Organohalogen Compels., 14: 341–344.Google Scholar
  77. Ruokojärvi P, Ettala M, Rahkonen P, Tarhanen J, Ruuskanen J (1995). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in municipal waste landfill fires. Chemosphere, 30: 1697–1708.Google Scholar
  78. Suzuki N, Yasuda M, Sakurai T, Nakanishi J (1998). Model simulation of environmental profile transformation and fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the multimedia environmental fate model. Chemosphere, 37: 2239–2250.Google Scholar
  79. Swackhamer D L (1996). Studies of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes. Issues in Environ. Sci. Technol.,6: 137–153.Google Scholar
  80. Swackhamer D L, Pearson R F, Schottler S (1996). A mass balance of toxaphene in the Great Lakes of North America. Organohalogen Compds., 28: 395–398.Google Scholar
  81. Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1990). Dioxins: a program for research and action. Swedish EPB, Solna, Sweden.Google Scholar
  82. Tejima H, Karatsu Y, Kawashima M, Sakai S, Honda T (1993). Reduction of dioxin emission on start up and shut down at batch operational MSW incineration plant. Chemosphere, 27: 263–269.Google Scholar
  83. Thibodeaux L J (1996). Environ. Chemodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Thomas V, Spiro T (1994). Summary of PCDD/PCDF emissions in the United States: history and relationships to chlorine in combusted material. Organohalogen Compels., 20: 367–372.Google Scholar
  85. Thomas V, Spiro T (1996). The U.S. dioxin inventory: are there missing sources? Environ. Sci. Technol., 30: 82A–85A.Google Scholar
  86. Travis C C, Hattemer-Frey H A (1987). Human exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Chemosphere, 16:2331–2342.Google Scholar
  87. Travis C C, Hattemer-Frey H A (1990). Dioxins: research needs for risk assessment. Chemosphere, 20: 729–742.Google Scholar
  88. US EPA (1994). Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds. Volume II: Properties, Sources, Occurrence and Background Exposures. Review Draft. Report No. EPA/600/6-88/005Cb, Office of Research and Development, Washington D C.Google Scholar
  89. US EPA (1997). Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Dioxins and Furans. Report No. EPA-454/R-97-003, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, N C.Google Scholar
  90. van Jaarsveld J A, van Pul W A J, de Leeuw F A A M (1997). Modelling transport and deposition of persistent organic pollutants in the European region. Atmos. Environ., 31:1011–1024.Google Scholar
  91. van Jaarsveld J A, Schutter M A A (1993). Modelling the long range transport and deposition of dioxins; first results for N W Europe. Chemosphere, 27: 131–139.Google Scholar
  92. van Pul W A J, de Leeuw F A A M, van Jaarsveld J A, van der Gaag M A, Sliggers C J (1998). The potential for long range transboundary atmospheric transport. Chemosphere, 37:113–141.Google Scholar
  93. Wallenhorst Th, Krauss P, Hagenmaier H (1995). PCDD/F in ambient air and deposition in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Organohalogen Compds., 24: 157–160.Google Scholar
  94. Webster T, Connett P (1998). Dioxin emission inventories and trends: the importance of large point sources. Chemosphere, 37: 2105–2118.Google Scholar
  95. Weiss P (1997). Mass balance of the PCDD/F pollution of Austrian forests and comparison with emission data. Organohalogen Compds., 32: 118–123.Google Scholar
  96. Weiss P (1998). Mass balance of the POP pollution of Austrian forests and comparison with emission data. Organohalogen Compds., 36: 513–515.Google Scholar
  97. Weiss P, Lorbeer G, Scharf S (1998). Compound-determined interrelations with regard to the POP load of Austrian background forest sites. Organohalogen Compds., 39: 145–148.Google Scholar
  98. Wesp H F, Rippen G, Fiedler H, Lau C, Hutzinger O, Sievers S, Friesel P, Gras B, Reich T, Schacht U, Vanrenholt F (1996). Dioxin mass balance for the city of Hamburg, Germany. Part 3: Update of food consumption data and human exposure. Organohalogen Compds., 30: 37–42.Google Scholar
  99. Wester P G, de Geus H-J, de Boer J, Brinkman U Th (1997). Simple nomenclature for chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and bornadienes from which structural information can be directly deduced. Organohalogen Compds., 33: 47–52.Google Scholar
  100. Wiberg K, Jantunen L M, Harner T, Wideman J L, Bidleman T F, Brice K, Su K, Falconer R L, Leone A D, Parkhurst W, Alegria H (1997). Chlordane enantiomers as source markers in ambient air. Organohalogen Compds., 33: 209–213.Google Scholar
  101. Wiberg K, Letcher R, Sandau C, Norstrom R, Tysklind M, Bidleman T (1998). Enantioselective analysis of organochlorines in the artic marine food chain: chiral biomagnification factors and relationships of enantiomeric ratios, chemical residues and biological data. Organohalogen Compds., 35: 371–374.Google Scholar
  102. Wild S R, Harrad S J, Jones K C (1992). Pentachlorophenol in the UK environment I: a budget and source inventory. Chemosphere, 24: 833–845.Google Scholar
  103. Wild S R, Jones K C (1995). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment: a preliminary source inventory and budget. Environ. Poll., 88: 91–108.Google Scholar
  104. Yasuda K, Takahashi M (1998). The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from municipal solid waste incinerators during the combustion cycle. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc, 48: 441–447.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • G H Eduljee

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations