Genetic algorithms, originally called genetic plans, were initiated by Holland, his colleagues, and his students at the University of Michigan in the 1970s as stochastic search techniques based on the mechanism of natural selection and natural genetics. In his 1975 monograph Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems [75], Holland presented genetic algorithms as an abstraction of biological evolution with a theoretical framework for adaptation. In the same year, De Jong completed his dissertation An Analysis of the Behavior of a Class of Genetic Adaptive Systems [46]. De Jong considered genetic algorithms in a function optimization setting, and since then genetic algorithms have attracted considerable attention as global methods for complex function optimization.


Genetic Algorithm Fuzzy Number Knapsack Problem Pareto Optimal Solution Fuzzy Goal 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masatoshi Sakawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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