Evolution of Secondary Hematologic Disorders: PREMDS→MDS→sAML

  • Harvey D. Preisler
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 108)

Abstract

The myelodysplastic syndromes [MDS] and acute myelogenous leukemia [AML] occurring subsequent to toxic exposure constitute the clinically apparent secondary hematologic disorders [sHD]. The incidence of these disorders has significantly increased during the past 40 years. This increase is most likely to be due to at least two phenomena: 1) increased exposure of individuals to hemopoietic toxins as part of treatment for malignant or autoimmune diseases; and 2) the increasing age of our population. It is generally assumed that “spontaneous” myelodysplastic syndromes (no history of toxic exposure) in the elderly are actually the result of a lifetime accumulation of genetic damage resulting from repeated low level toxic exposures in the environment. Despite there being some differences in the frequency of specific chromosomal abnormalities between secondary MDS [sMDS] and spontaneous MDS, these two entities are similar in terms of stem cell involvement, the characteristics of the marrow and peripheral blood, and the clinical courses of these two syndromes. In this chapter these two “types” of MDS, will be considered as one.

Keywords

Lymphoma Codon Leukemia Recombination Anemia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdollahi, A., Lord, K.A., Hoffman, R., Liebermann, B., Liebermann, D.A. (1991) Interferon regulatory factor 1 is a myeloid differentiation primary response gene induced by interleukin 6 and leukemia inhibitory factor: role in growth inhibition.Cell Growth and Differentiation2, 401–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, J.M., Harris, A.W., Pinkert, C.A., Corcoran, L.M., Alexander, W.S., Cory, S., Palmiter R.D., Brinster, R.L. (1985) The c-myc oncogene driven by immunoglobulin enhancers induces lymphoid malignancy in transgenic mice.Nature318, 533–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahuja, H.G., Jat, P.S., Foti, A., Bar-Eli, M., Cline, M.J. (1991) Abnormalities of the retinoblastoma gene in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia.Blood78, 3259–3268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amundadottir, L.T., Merlino, G., Dickson, R.B. (1996) Transgenic mouse models of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research, 119–135.Google Scholar
  5. Arif, M., Tanaka, K., Damodaran, C., Asou, H., Kyo, T., Dohy, H., Kamada, N. (1996) Hidden monosomy 7 in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization.Leukemia Research20, 709–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banavali, S.D., Silvestry, F.F., Pavelic, K., Pavelic, Z.P., Smith, P.L., Preisler, H.D. (1991) Studies of the geographic patterns of c-myc expression in bone marrow.Cell Proliferation24, 529–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bashey, A., Gill, R., Levi, S., Farr, C.J., Clutterbuck, R., Millar, J.L., Pragnell, LB., Marshall, C.J. (1992) Mutational activation of the N-ras oncogene assessed in primary clonogenic culture of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): Implications for the role of N-ras mutation in AML pathogenesis.Blood79, 981–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaupre, D.M., Talpaz, M., Marini, III F.C., Cristiano, R.J., Roth, J.A., Estrov, Z., Albitar, M., Freedman, M.H., Kurzrock, R. (1999) Autocrine interleukin-113 production in leukemia: Evidence for the involvement of mutated ras’.Cancer Research59, 2971–2980.Google Scholar
  9. Benchimo, S., Minden, M.D. (1987) “Viruses, Oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes.” The basic science of Oncology. Ian F. Tannck and Richard P. Hill, McGraw-Hill, 79–105.Google Scholar
  10. Bi, S., Horvath, E., Yang, J., Gao, X-Z., Chopra, H., Raza, A., Shahidi, H., Gregory, S., Kaizer, H., Preisler, H.D. (1997) Molecular biologic studies in premyelodysplasia, myelodysplasia, and AML.Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 16:542a Abstract #1952.Google Scholar
  11. Birnbaum, M.J., van Zundert, B., Vaughan, P.S., Whitmarsh, A.J., van Wijnen, A.J., Davis, R.J., Stein, G.S., Stein, J.L. (1997) Phosphorylation of the oncogenic transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) in vitro and in vivo.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry66, 175–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodnar, A.G., Ouellette, M., Frolkis, M., Holt, S.E., Chiu, C.P., Morin, G.B., Harley, C.B., Shay, J.W., Lichtsteiner, S., Wright, W.E. (1998) Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells.Science279, 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boultwood, J., Fidler, C., Lewis, S., MacCarthy, A., Sheridan, H., Kelly, S., Oscier, D., Buckle, V.J., Wainscoat, J.S. (1993) Allelic loss of IRF-1 in myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: retentionof IRF1 on the 5q-chromosome in some patients with the 5q-syndrome.Blood82, 2611–1616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bos, J.L., Verlaan-deVries, M., van der, E.B. A.J., Janssen, J.W.G., Delwel, R., Lowenberg, B., Colly, L.P. (1987) Mutations in N-ras predominate in acute myeloid leukemia.Blood69, 1237–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bos, J.L. (1989). Ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review.Cancer Research49, 4682–4689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouchard, L., Lamarre, L., Tremblay, P.J., Jolicoeur, P. (1989) Stochastic appearance of mammary tumors in transgenic mice carrying the MMTV/c-neu oncogene.Cell57,931–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Busque, L., Mio, R., Mattioli, J., Brais, E., Biais, N., Lalonde, Y., Maragh, M., Gilliland, D.G. (1996) Nonrandom x-inactivation patterns in normal females: Lyonization ratios vary with age.Blood88, 59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cachia, P.G., Culligan, D.J., Clark, R.E., Whittaker, J.A., Jacobs, A., Padua, R.A. (1993) Clonal Haemopoiesis following cytotoxoic therapy for lymphoma.Leukemia7, 795800.Google Scholar
  19. Campisi, J., Gray, H.E., Pardee, A.B., Sonenshein, G.E. (1984) Cell-cycle control of c-myc but not c-ras expression is lost following chemical transformation.Cell 36241–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carter, G., Hughes, D.C., Clark, R.E., McCormick, F., Jacobs, A., Whittaker, J.A., Padua, R.A. (1990) RAS mutations in patients following cytotoxic therapy for lymphoma.Oncogene5, 411–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cazzola, M., May, A., Bergamaschi, G., Cerani, P., Rosti, V., Bishop, D.F. (2000) Familial-skewed x-chromosome inactivation as a predisposing factor for late-onset x-linked sideroblastic anemia in carrier females.Blood15,4363–4365.Google Scholar
  22. Champion, K.M., Gilbert, J.G., Asimakopoulos, F.A., Hinshelwood, S., Green, A.R. (1997) Clonal haemopoiesis in normal elderly women: implications for the myeloproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes.British Journal of Haematology 97920–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christensen, K., Kristiansen, M., Hagen-Larsen, H., Skytthe, A., BathumL.Jeune, B., Andersen-Ranberg, K., Vaupel, J.W., Orstavik, K.H. (2000) X-linked genetic factors regulate hematopoietic stem-cell kinetics in females. Blood 952449–2451.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, M.F., Kukowska, J.F., Westin, E., Smith, M., Prochownik, E.V. (1988) Constitutive expressionof a c-myc cDNA blocks friend murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation.Molecular & Cellular Biology 8 884–892.Google Scholar
  25. Coghlan, D.W., Morley, A.A., Matthews, J.P., Bishop, J.F. (1994) The incidence and prognostic significance of mutations in codon 13 of the N-ras gene in acute myeloid leukemia.Leukemia 8 1682–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Darrington, D.L., Voss, J.M., Anderson, J.R., Bierman, P.J., Bishop, M.R., Chan, W.C., Morris, M.E., Reed, E.C., Sanger, W.G., Tarantolo, S.R., Weisenburger, D.D., Kessinger, A., Armitage, J.O. (1994) Incidence and characterization of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia following high-dose chemoradiotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies.Journal of Clinical Oncology 12 2527–2534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Demetri, G.D., Ernst, T.J., Pratt, E.X., Zenzie, B.W., Rheinwald, J.G., Griffin, J.D. (1990) Expressionof ras oncogenes in cultured human cells alters the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of cytokine genes.Journal of Clinical Investigation86,1261–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Depinho, R.A., Schreiber-Agus, N., Alt, F.W. (1991) My family oncogenes in the development of normal and neoplastic cells.Advances in Cancer Research57,1–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dinarello, C.A. (1996). Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in disease.Blood 87 2095–2147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Elbaz, O., Mahmoud, L.A. (1994) Tumor necrosis factor and human acute leukemia.Leukemia and Lymphoma12,191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faderl, S., Kantarjian, H.M., Estey, E., Manshouri, T., Chan, C.Y., Elsaied, A.R., Komblau, S.M., Cortes, J., Thomas, D.A., Pierce, S., Keating, M.J., Estrov, Z., Albitar, M. (1999) The prognositc significance of p16INKa/P14ARF locus deletion and MDM-2 protein expressionin adult acute myelogenous leukemia.Blood 94 74a.Google Scholar
  32. Far, R.K., Der, C.J. (1994) The ras signal transduction pathway.Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 13 67–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Filmus, J., Robles, A.I., Shi, W., Wong, M.J., Colombo, L.L., Cont, C.J. (1994) Induction of cyclin D1 overexpression by activated ras.Oncogene 9 3627–3633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Freytag, S.O. (1988) Enforced expression of the c-myc oncogene inhibits cell differentiation by precluding entry into a distinct predifferentiation state in G0/G 1.Molecular and Cellular Biology 8 1614–1624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gale, R.E., Bunch, C., Moir, D.J., Patterson, K.G., Goldstone, A.H., Linch, D.C. (1996) Demonstration of developing myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia in haematologically normal patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation using X-chromosome inactivation patterns.British Journal of Haematology 93 53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gale RE, Fielding AK, Harrison CN, Linch DC. (1997) Acquired skewing of X-chromosome inactivation patterns in myeloid cells of the elderly suggests stochastic clonal loss with age.British Journal of Haematology 17512–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harada, H., Kitagawa, M., Tanaka, N., Yamamoto, H., Harada, K., Ishihara, M., Taniguchi, T. (1993) Anti-oncogenic and oncogenic potentials of interferon regulatory factors-1and -2.Science,259971–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harada, H., Kondo, T., Ogawa, S., Tamura, T., Kitagawa, M., Tanaka, N., Lamhier, M.S., Hrai, H., Taniguchi, T. (1994) Accelerated exon skipping of Irf-1 mRNA in human myelodysplasia/ leukemia; a possible mechanism of tumor suppressor inactivation.Oncogene 9 3313–3320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Heim, S. (1992) Cytogenetic findings in primary and secondary MDS.Leukemia Research 1643–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Herman, J.G., Merlo, A., Mao, L., Lapidus, R.G., Issa, J.P., Davidson, N.E., Sidransky, D., Baylin, S.B. (1995) Inactivation of the CDKN2/p16/MTS1 gene is frequently associated with aberrant DNA methylation in all common human cancers.Cancer Research 55 4525–4230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Herwig, S., Strauss, M. (1997) The retinoblastoma protein: a master regulator of cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis.European Journal of Biochemistry 246 581–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hochhaus, A., Yan, X.H., Willer, A., Hehlmann, R., Gordon, M..Y., Goldman, J.M., Melo, J.V. (1997). Expression of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) genes and response to interferon-yin chronic myeloid leukaemia.Leukemia 11 933–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunter, T. (1991) Cooperation between oncogenes. Cell, 64, 249–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johannes, L.B. (1989) Ras oncogenes in human cancer: A Review.Cancer Research 49 4682–4689.Google Scholar
  45. Jonveaux, P.H., Fenaux, P., Quiquandon, I., Pignon, J.M., Lai, J.L., Loucheux-Lefebvre, M.D., Goossens, M., Bauters, F., Berger, R. (1991) Mutations in the p53 gene in myelodysplastic syndromes.Oncogene 6 2243–2247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalra, R., Dale, D., Freedman, M., Bonilla, M.A., Weinblatt, M., Ganser, A., Bowman, P., Abish, S., Priest, J., Oseas, R.S. (1995) Monosomy 7 and activating RAS mutations accompany malignant transformation in patients with congenital neutropenia.Blood 86 4579–4586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kassar, N.E., Hetet, G., Briere, J., Grandchamp, B. (1998) X-chromosome inactivation inhealthy females: incidence of excessive lyonization with age and comparison of assay involving DNA methylation and transcript polymorphismClinical Chemistry 44 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kataoka, H., Tahara, H., Watanable, T., Sugawara, M., Ide, T., Goto, M., Furuichi, Y., Sugimoto, M. (1997) Immortalization of immunologically committed Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines accompanied by a strong telomerase activity.Differentiation 62 203–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kirchhoff, S., Schaper, F., Hauser, H. (1992) Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) mediates cell growth inhibition by transactivation of downstream target genes.Nucleic Acids Research21,2881–2889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kornblau, S.M., Xu, H.J., Zhang, W., Hu, S.X., Beran, M., Smith, T.L., Hester, J., Estey, E., Benedict, W.F., Deisseroth, A.B. (1994) Levels of retinoblastoma protein expression in newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia.Blood 84 256–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lallemand, C., Bayat-Sarmadi, M., Blanchard, B., Tovey, M.G. (1997) Identificationof a novel transcriptional regulatory element common to the p53 and interferon regulatory factor I genes.Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 29801–29809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Land, H., Parada, L.F., Weinberg, R.A. (1983) Cellular oncogenes and multistep carcinogenesis. Science222771–778.Google Scholar
  53. Lawler, S.D., Summersgill, B., Clink, H.M., McElwain, T.J. (1980) Cytogenetic follow-up study of acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia.British Journal of Haematology44, 395405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Le Beau, M.M., Albain, K.S., Larson, R.A., Vardiman, J.W., Davis, E.M., Blough, R.R., Golomb, H.M., Rowley, J.D. (1986) Clinical and cytogenetic correlations in 63 patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: Further evidence for characteristic abnormalities of chromosomes NO. 5 and7. Journal of Clinical Oncology4, 325–345.Google Scholar
  55. Lee, J., Kook, H., Chung, I., Kim, H., Park, M., Kim, C., Nah, J., Hwang, T. (1999) Telomere length changes in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Bone Marrow Transplantation24, 411–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, S., Elenbaas, B., Levine, A., Griffith, J. (1995) p53 and its 14 kDa C-terminal domain recognize primary DNA damage in the form of insertion/deletion mismatches.Cell81, 1013–1020.Google Scholar
  57. Levin, A.J. (1997) P53, the cellular gatekeeper for growth and division.Cell88,323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Li, B., Yang, J., Andrews, C., Chen, Y-X., Toofanfard, P., Huang, R-W., Horvath, E., Chopra, H., Raza, A., Preisler, H.D. (2000) Telomerase activity in preleukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia.Leukemia and Lymphoma36, 579–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Loew, S.W., Ruley, H.E., Jacks, T., Housman, D.E. (1993) p53-dependent apoptosis modulates the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents.Cell76, 957–67.Google Scholar
  60. Lubbert, M., Oster, W., Knopf, H.P., McCormick, F., Mertelsmann, R., Herrmann, F. (1993) N-ras gene activation in acute myeloid leukemia: Association with expression of interleukin-6.Leukemia7, 1948–1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mach-Pascual, S., Legare, R.D., Lu, D., Kroon, M., Neuberg, D., Tantravahi, R., Stone, R.M., Freedman, A.S., Nadler, L.M., Gribben, J.G., Gilliland, D.G. (1998) Predictive value of clonality assays in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplant: A single institution study.Blood91, 4496–4503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mayani, H., Baines, P., Bowen, D.T., Jacobs, A. (1989) In vitro growth of myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells from myelodysplastic patients in response to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.Leukemia3, 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Merchav, S., Nagler, A., Fleischer-Kurtz, G., Tatarsky, I. (1989) Regulatory abnormalities in the marrow of patents with myelodysplastic syndromes.British Journal of Haematology73, 158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Michalova, K., Musilova, J., Zemanova, Z. (1991) Consecutive chromosomal studies in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).Czechoslovak MDS Cooperative Group. Annales de Genetique34, 212–218.Google Scholar
  65. Miller, O.J., Therman, E. (1980) “Genome destabilization and multistep progression to cancer.”Human Chromosomes, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  66. Mundle, S.,Venugopal, P., Shetty, V., Ali, A., Chopra, H., Rose, S., Mativi, B.Y., Gregory, S., Preisler, H. & Raza, A. (1999) The relative extent and propensity of CD34’ vs. Cd34cells to undergo apoptosis in myelodysplastic marrows.International Journal of Hematology69, 152–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mundle, S.D., Mativi, B.Y., Cartlidge, J.D., Dangerfield, B., Robinson, L.B., Li, B., Shetty, V., Venugopal, P., Gregory, S.A., Preisler, H.D., Raza, A. (2000) Signal antonymy unique to myelodysplastic marrows correlates with altered expression of E2FI.British Journal of Haematology109, 376–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Munker, R., Koeffler, P. (1987) In vitro action of tumor necrosis factor on myeloid leukemia cells.Blood69, 1102–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Neubauer, A., Greenberg, P., Negrin, R., Ginzton, N., Liu, E. (1994) Mutations in the ras proto-oncogenes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.Leukemia8, 638–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Neubauer, A., Shannon, K., Liu, E. (1991) Mutations of the ras proto-oncogenes in childhood monosomy7. Blood77, 594–598.Google Scholar
  71. Ohmori, M., Ohmori, S., Ueda, Y., Yoshida, Y., Okuma, M. (1991) Ineffective hemopoiesis in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as studied by daily in situ observation of colony-cluster formation.International Journal of Cell Cloning9, 521–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ohyashiki, K., Ohyashiki, J.H., Nishimaki, J., Toyama, K., Ebihara, Y., Kato, H., Wright, W.E., Shay, J.W. (1997) Cytological detection of telomerase activity using an in situ telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay.Cancer Research57, 2100–2103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Panterne, B., Zhou, Y.Q., Hatzfeld, J., Li, M.L., Levesque, J.P., Clark, S.C., Hatzfeld, A. (1993) CSF-1 control of C-FMS expression in normal human bone marrow progenitors.Journal of Cellular Physiology155, 282–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paquete, R.L., Landaw, E.M., Pierre, R.V., Kahan, J., Lubbert, M., Lazcano, O., Isaac, G., McCormick, F., Koeffler, P. (1993) N-ras mutations are associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome.Blood82, 590–599.Google Scholar
  75. Parker, J., Mufti, G.J. (1996) Ras and myelodysplasia: Lessons from the last decade.Seminars in Hematology33, 206–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pedersen-Bjergaard, J., Philip, P., Larsen, S.O., Andersson, M., Daugaard, G., Ersboll, J., Hansen, S.W., Hou-Jensen, K., Nielsen, D., Sigsgaard, T.C., Specht, L., Osterlind, K. (1993) Therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. Cytogenetic characteristics of 115 Consecutive cases and risk in seven cohorts of patients treated intensively for malignant diseases in the Copenhagen series.Leukemia7, 19751986.Google Scholar
  77. Preisler, H.D., Raza, A. 1987a Proto-oncogene transcript levels and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.Seminars in Oncology14, 207–216.Google Scholar
  78. Preisler, H.D., Kinniburgh, A.J., Wei-Don, G., Khan, S. 1987b Expression of the protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-fms in acute myelocytic leukemia at diagnosis and in remission.Cancer Research47, 874–880.Google Scholar
  79. Preisler, H.D. (1988) Hypothesis regarding the development of acute myeloid leukemia from preleukemic disorders: The role of proto-oncogenes.Cancer Genetic Cytogenetics32, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Preisler, H.D., Raza, A., Larson, R., LeBeau, M., Browman, G., Goldberg, J., Grunwald, H., Volger, R., Verkh, L., Singh, P., Block, A.M., Sandberg, A. (1989) Proto-oncogene expression and the clinical characteristics of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: A Leukemia Intergroup Pilot Study.Blood73, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Preisler, H.D., Raza, A., Larson, R., Goldberg, J., Tricot, G., Browman, G., Bennett, J. 1994a The relationship of the in vivo cells cycle characteristics and treatment outcome in acute myelogenous leukemia to the expression of the Fms, and Myc PhotoOncogenes.Leukemia and Lymphoma14, 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Preisler, H.D., Venugopal, P. 1994b Regrowth resistance in leukemia and lymphoma: The need for a new system to classify treatment failure and for new approaches to treatment.Leukemia Research18, 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Preisler, H.D. 1995a Resistance to cytotoxic therapy: A speculative overview.Annals of Oncology6, 651–657.Google Scholar
  84. Preisler, H.D. 1995b Multidrug resistance is more than MDRI activity.Leukemia Research19, 429–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Preisler, H.D., Gao, X-Z., Chopra, H., Devemy, E., Venugopal, P., Bi, S. (1998) Control of leukemia proliferation in vivo in patients: In vivo cytokine production. Acute Leukemia VII Symposium, Published in Acute Leukemias VII, Experimental Approaches and Novel Therapies. Hiddeman W, Buchner T, Wormann B, Ritter J, Creutzig U, Keating M, Plunkett W (eds). Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 307316.Google Scholar
  86. Preisler, H.D., Gao, X-Z., Tao, M., Li, B., Bi, S., Devemy, E., Loew, J., Raza, A. (1999) Marrow cytokine transcripts and the secondary hematologic disorders.Leukemia and Lymphoma35, 297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Preisler, H.D., Li, B., Yang, J., Huang, R-W., Devemy, E., Venugopal, P., Tao, M., Chopra, H., Gregory, S.A., Adler, S., Sivaraman, S., Toofanfard, P., Jajeh, A., Galvez, A., Robin, E. (2000) Suppression of telomerase activity, cytokine mRNA level in acute myelogenous leukemia cells in vivo in patients by amifostine and IL-4.Clinical Cancer Research6, 807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Preisler, H.D., Li, B., Chen, H., Fisher, L., Nayini, J., Raza, A., Creech, S., Venugopal, P. (2001) P151NK4Bgene methylation and expression in normal, myelodysplastic, and acute myelogenous leukemia cells and in the marrow cells of cured lymphoma patients. In PressLeukemia. Google Scholar
  89. Price, C.M., Marshall, C.J., Bashey, A. (1994) Sequential acquisition of trisome 8 and N-ras mutation in acute myeloid leukaemia demonstrated by analysis of isolated leukaemic colonies.British Journal of Haematology88, 338–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Preudhomme, C., Vachee, A., Lepelley, P., Vanrumbeke, M., Zandecki, M., Quesnel, B., Cosson, A., Fenaux, P. (1994) Inactivationof the retinoblastoma gene appears to be very uncommon in myelodysplstic syndromes.British Journal of Haematology91, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Radich, J.P., Kopecky, K.J., Willman, C.L., Weick, J., Head, D., Appelbaum, F., Collins, S.J. (1990) N-ras mutations in adult De Novo acute myelogenous leuekmia: Prevalence and clinical significance.Blood76, 801–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Raskind, W.H., Tirumali, N., Jacobson, R., Singer, J., Fialkow, P.J. (1984) Evidence for a multistep pathogenesis of a myelodysplastic syndrome.Blood63, 1318–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Raza, A., Preisler, H.D., Li, Q.U., Larson, R.A., Goldberg, J., Browman, G., Bennett, J., Grunwald, H., Vogler, R., Kukla, C. (1993) Biological characteristics of newly diagnosed poor prognosis acute myelogenous leukemia.American Journal of Hematology42, 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Raza A, Rifkin S, Showel J, Gregory S, Gezer S, Parcharidou A, Mundle A, Shetty V, Alvi S, Borok R, Loew J, Preisler H: Novel treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) by suppression of high apoptotic intramedullary cell death (1995)American Society of Clinical Oncology14:78, Abstract #17.Google Scholar
  95. Raza, A., Mundle, S., Shetty, V., Alvi, S., Chopra, H., Span, L., Parcharidou, A., Dar, S., Venugopal, P., Borok, R., Gezer, S., Showel, J., Loew, J., Rifkin, S., Alston, D., Hernandez, B., Shah, R., Kaizer, H., Gregory, S., Preisler, H.D. 1996a A paradigm shift in myelodysplastic syndromes.Leukemia10, 1648–1652.Google Scholar
  96. Raza, A., Mundle, S., Shetty, V., Alvi, S., Chopra, H., Span, L., Parcharidou, A., Dar, S., Venugopal, P., Borok, R., Gezer, S., Showel, J., Loew, J., Robin, E., Rifkin, S., Alston, D., Hernandez, B., Shah, R., Kaizer, H., Gregory, S. 1996b Novel insights into the biology of myelodysplastic syndromes: excessive apoptosis and the role of cytokines.International Journal of Hematology63, 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Raza, A., Gezer, S., Gregory, S.A., Venugopal, P., Kaizer, H., Dong, L.M., Span, L., Hines, C., Thomas, R., Alvi, S., Mundle, S.D., Shetty, V., Borok, R., Loew, J., Reza, S., Robin, E.L., Rifkin, S.D., Alston, D., Hernandez, B.M., Shah, R., Preisler, H.D. (1996c) Anti-cytokine therapy produces responses in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).Blood88, 580a, Abstract # 2310.Google Scholar
  98. Sandhu, C., Garbe, J., Bhattacharya, N., Daksis, J., Pan, C.H., Yaswen, P., Koh, J., Slingerland, J.M., Stampfer, M.R. (1997) Transforming growth factor B stabilizesp15 1NK4Bprotein, increases p15BaK4B-cdk4 complexes, and inhibits cyclin Dl-cdk4 association in human mammary epithelial cells.Molecular and Cellular Biology, 17, 24582467.Google Scholar
  99. Serrano, M., Gomez-Lahoz, E., DePinho, R., Beach, D., Bar-Sagi, D. (1995) Inhibition of Ras-induced proliferation and cellular transformation by pl6’NK4.Science267, 249–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Serrano, M., Lee, H.W., Chin, L., Cordon-Cardo, C., Beach, D., DePinho, R.A. (1996) Role of the INK4a locus in tumor suppression and cell mortality.Cell85, 27–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Serrano, M., Li, A.W., McCurrach, M.E., Beach, D., Lowe, S.W. (1997) Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with a accumulation of p53 and p16mK4a Cell, 88, 593–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shadduck, R.K (2001) “Aplastic anemia” Williams Hematology, Sixth Edition, Beutler E, Lichtman MA, Coller BS, Kipps TJ, Seligsohn U. McGraw Hill Companies. New York.Google Scholar
  103. Shimamura, A., Fisher, D.E. (1996) P53 in life and death.Clinical Cancer Research2, 435440.Google Scholar
  104. Soddu, S., Blandino, G., Scardigli, R., Coen, S., Marchetti, A., Rizzo, M.G., Bossi, G., Cimino, L., Crescenzi, M., Sacchi, A. (1996) Interference with p53 protein inhibits hematopoietic and muscle differentiation.Journal of Cellular Biology134, 193204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Steiner, P., Philipp, A., Lukas, J., Godden-Kent, D., Pagano, M., Mittnacht, S., Bartek, J., Eilers, M. (1995) Identification of a myc-dependent step during the formation of active G1 cyclin-cdk complexes.European Journal of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry14, 4814–4826.Google Scholar
  106. Stone, R.M. (1994) Myelodysplastic syndrome after autologous transplantation for lymphoma: the price of progress.Blood83, 3437–3440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sugimoto, K., Hirano, N., Toyoshima, H., Chiba, S., Mano, H., Takaku, F., Yazaki, Y., Hirai, H. (1993) Mutations of the p53 gene in myclodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS-derived leukemia.Blood81, 3022–3026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tanaka, N., Ishihara, M., Taniguchi, T. 1994a Suppression of c-myc or fosB-induced cell transformation by the transcription factor IRF-1.Cancer letters83, 194–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tanaka, N., Ishihara, M., Kitagawa, M., Harada, H., Kimura, T., Matsuyama, T., Lamphier, M.S., Aizawa, S., Male, T.W., Taniguchi, T. 1994b Cellular commitment to oncogene-induced transformation or apoptosis is dependent n the transcription factor IRF-1.Cell77, 829–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tanaka, N., Ishihara, M., Lamphier, M.S., Nozawa, H., Matsuyama, T., Mak, T.W., Aizawa, S., Tokino, T., Oren, M., Taniguchi, T. (1996) Cooperationof the tumour suppressors IRF-1 and p53 in response to DNA damage.Nature382, 816–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tang, J.L., Yeh, S.H., Chen, P.J., Lin, M.T., Tien, H.F., Chen, Y.C. (1992) Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene in acute myelogenous leukaemia.British Journal of Haematology82, 502–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tao, M., Li, B., Nayini, J., Andrews, C.B., Huang, R-W., Yang, J., Devemy, E., Song, S., Venugopal, P., Preisler, H.D. (2000) SCF, ILIß, ILlra and GMCSF in the bone marrow and serum of normal individuals and of AML and CML patients.Cytokine12, 699–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tennant, G.D., Truran, L.N., Kell, W.J., Bumett, A.K. (1997) Myelodysplastic bone marrow stroma is defective in its ability to sustain normal stem cell growth.Blood90, 582a, Abstract #2588.Google Scholar
  114. Testa, J.R., Mitz, U., Rowley, J.D., Vardiman, J.W., Golomb, H.M. (1979) Evolution of karyotypes in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.Cancer Research39, 3619–3627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Toksoz, D., Fan, C.J., Marshall, C.J. (1987) ras gene activation in a minor proportion of the blast population in acute myeloid leukemia.Oncogene1, 409–413.Google Scholar
  116. Tonon, L., Bergamaschi, G., Dellavecchia, C., Rosti, V., Lucotti, C., Malabarba, L., Novella, A., Vercesi, E., Frassoni, F., Cazzola, M. (1998) Unbalanced x-chromosome inactivation in haemopoietic cells from normal women.British Journal of Haematology 102 996–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Traweek, T.S., Slovak, L., Nademanee, A.P., Bynes, R.K., Niland, J.C., Forman, S.J. (1994) Clonal karyotypic hematopoietic cell abnormalities occurring after autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin’s Disease and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.Blood 84 957–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Vaugh, P.S., Aziz, F., van Wijnen, A.J., Wu, S., Harada, H., Taniguchi, T., Soprano, K.J., Stein, J.L., Stein, G.S. (1995) Activation of a cell-cycle-regulated histone gene by the oncogenic transcription factor IRF-2.Nature 377 362–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vaziri, H., Benchimo, S. (1998) Reconstitution of telomerase activity in normal human cells leads to elongation of telomeraes and extended replicative life span.Current Biology8,279–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. VenugopalP.Kadam, P., Preisler, H.D., Hulette, B., Li, Y.Q., Steele, P., Freeman, J., Banavali, S. (1992a) Abnormal regulation of the MYC gene in myeloid leukemia. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 9139–147.Google Scholar
  121. Venugopal, P., Hulette, B., Li, Y.Q., Kuvelkar, R., Raza, A., Larson, R., Goldberg, J., Tricot, G., Bennett, J., Preisler, H.D. (1992b) c-MYC and c-MYB expression in acute myelogenous leukemia.Leukemia Research 16 1003–1011.Google Scholar
  122. Vogelstein, B., Kinzler, K.W. (1993) The multistep nature of cancer.TIG 9 138–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weinberg, R.A. (1995) The retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle control.Cell 81 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. White, A.D., Culligan, D.J., Hoy, T.G., Jacobs, A. (1992). Extended cytogenetic follow-up of patietns with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).British Journal of Haematology81,499–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Williams, B.O., Remington, L., Albert, D.M., Mukai, S., Bronson, R.T., Jacks, T. (1994) Cooperative tumorigenic effects of germline mutations in Rb and p53.Nature Genetics7, 480–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Williamson, M.P., Elder, P.A., Shaw, M.E., Devlin, J., Knowles, M.A. (1995) p16 (CDKN2) is a major deletion target at 9p21 in bladder cancer.Human Molecular Genetics 4 1569–1577.Google Scholar
  127. Willman, C.L., Sever, C.E., Pallavicini, M.G., Harada, H., Tanaka, N., Slovak, M.L., Yamamto, H., Harada, K., Meeker, T.C., List, A.F. (1993) Deletion of IRF-1, mapping to chromosome 5831.1, in human leukemia and preleukemic myelodysplasia.Science 259 968–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Xie, Y., DeWinter, J.P., Waisfisz, Q., Nieuwint, A.W., Scheper, R.J., Arwert, F., Hoatling, M.E., Ossenkoppele, G.J., Schuurhuis, G., Joenje, H. (2000) Aberrant fanconi anaemia protein profiles in acute myeloid leukaemia cells.British Journal of Haematology 111 1057–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yunis, J.J., Boot, A.J.M., Mayer, M.G., Bos, J.L. (1989) Mechanisms of ras mutation in myelodysplastic syndrome.Oncogene 4 609–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhao, L., van Oort, J., Cork, A., Liang, J.C. (1993) Comparison between interphse and metaphase cytogenetics in detecting chromosome 7 defects in hematological neoplasias.American Journal of Hematology 43 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhu, Y.M., Bradbury, D., Russell, N. (1994) Decreased retinoblastoma protein expression in acute myeloblastic leukaemia is associated with the autonomous proliferation of clonogenic blasts.British Journal of Haemtology 86 533–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey D. Preisler
    • 1
  1. 1.Rush Cancer InstituteRush-Presbyterian-St.Luke’s Medical Center, Rush UniversityChicago

Personalised recommendations