The More Things Change, The More they Stay the Same: The Evolution and Devolution of Youth Employment Programs

  • Alan Zuckerman
Part of the Outreach Scholarship book series (OUTR, volume 6)


Federal, state, local, and community-based job training programs have been evolving and devolving for more than 30 years. The Manpower Development and Training Act, passed in 1962, marked the beginning of a continuously evolving national employment and training policy labeled successively Manpower and Manpower Development in 1962, Employment and Training in 1973, Job Training in 1983, and Workforce Investment in 1998. The changes in labels reflect changes in both the awareness of their connotations (the word manpower was sexist; it excluded women) and the focus of national policy.


Young People Youth Development Youth Program Youth Employment Thing Change 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Zuckerman

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