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Biological Control of Aphids by Using Their Parasitoids

  • R. Singh

Abstract

The aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are small insects sucking sap from a vast variety of crop plants. They are cosmopolitan but are most abundant in the temperate climates. They are unique on the account of their peculiar mode of reproduction, development and the polymorphism. They may reproduce either by parthenogenesis, zygogenesis or paedogenesis. They may either be oviparous or viviparous. The sexes may be unequally represented (male often being wanting and frequently rare) in certain generations. Parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid increase in numbers and results in populations consisting of clones. Some species reproduce both parthenogenetically and sexually (holocyclic species) whereas only few reproduce parthenogenetically (anholocyclic species) (Behura, 1994, 1997). In suitable conditions their numbers rapidly rise above economic threshold levels. All parts of the plants including roots are attacked by them. Some of them directly damage the plants by sucking their nutrients that cause curling and twisting of tender shoots and general devitalisation of plants especially of agricultural as well as horticultural importance. Very young seedlings if attacked by them may die. Inflorescence may fail to open fully when the part of the plant is heavily infested. Sometime fruits fail to develop normally which may also show various malformations like twisting of pods, impaired developments of seeds, etc. The sub-aerial infestations by aphids also cause yellowing of foliages and stunted general growth. In gallmaking aphids, direct injury is caused by making different types of leaf and stem galls and these galls subsequently serve as temporary abodes for those aphids. These symptoms are observed on perennial forest trees. In spite of aforesaid direct effects, aphids have also some indirect effects.

Keywords

Biological Control Natural Enemy Aphid Population Sweet Pepper Biological Control Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Aphid Biocontrol Laboratory Department of ZoologyDean Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur UniversityGorakhpurIndia

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