Metabolic Consequences of Hypdxic Conditioning in Lymnaea Stagnalis

  • Barbara E. Taylor
  • Kim Smyth
  • John E. Remmers
  • Ken Lukowiak
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 499)


The ventilatory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis (surfacing and opening the respiratory orifice, the pneumostome) can be operantly conditioned1. Snails placed in severely hypoxic water (< 1 ml 02 .L-1; created by gassing with nitrogen) are normally driven to increase their rate of ventilatory behavior1. However, if a noxious tactile stimulus is applied to the pneumostome at the time of ventilation, the animals can be conditioned not to breathe. They learn to self-impose hypoxia, and they remember to do so whenever they are placed in the nitrogen-gassed water. How is Lymnaea able to do so; most animals typically exhibit a hypoxic response designed to rectify oxygen limitation?


Live Mass Hypoxic Response Conditioned Group Hypoxic Water Hypoxic Ventilatory Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lukowiak, K., Ringseis, E., Spencer, G., Wildering, W., Syed, N., 1996, Operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea stagnalis, J. Exp. Biol. 199:683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Powell, F.L., Milsom, W.K. and Mitchell, G.S., 1998, Time domains in the hypoxic ventilatory response, Respir. Physiol. 112:123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hochachka, P.W., Buck, L.T., Doll, C., and Land, S.C., 1996, Unifying theory of hypoxia tolerance: molecular metabolic defense and rescue mechanisms for surviving oxygen lack, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51:9493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bickler, P.E. and Buck, L.T., 1998, Adaptations of vertebrate neurons to hypoxia and anoxia: maintaining critical Ca 2+ concentrations, J. Exp. Biol. 201:1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lukowiak, K., Adatia, N., Krygier, D., Syed, N., 2000, Operant conditioning in Lymnaea: evidence for intermediate-and long-term memory, Learning & Memory 7:140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Okubo, S. and Mortola, J.P.Jr., 1990, Control of ventilation in adult rats hypoxic in the neonatal period, Am. J. Physiol. 259:R836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ling, L., Olson, E.B.Jr., Vidruk, E.H. and Mitchell, G.S., 1997, Developmental plasticity of the hypoxic ventilatory response, Respir. Physiol. 110:261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thomas, A.J., Austin, W., Friedman, L. and Strohl, K.P., 1992, A model of ventilatory instability in the unrestrained rat, J. Appl. Physiol. 73:1530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomas, A.J., Friedman, L., MacKenzie, C.N. and Strohl, K.P., 1995, Modification of conditioned apneas in rats: Evidence for cortical involvement, J. Appl. Physiol. 78:1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara E. Taylor
    • 1
  • Kim Smyth
    • 2
  • John E. Remmers
    • 2
  • Ken Lukowiak
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyDartmouth Medical School, Borwell Bldg., 1 Medical Center DriveLebanonUSA
  2. 2.Neuroscience and Respiratory Research Groups, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations