Although this study has focused on reproductive health, African American women and men die younger and have higher rates of morbidity and mortality for most diseases than whites. Mainstream literature in medicine and epidemiology traditionally has attributed these disparities to genetic or cultural differences. Critics of these approaches have pointed to the necessity of studying race, class, and gender as structural constraints on health (Cooper, 1986; Krieger and Bassett, 1986; Krieger, 1999; Mullings, 1984, 1989).
KeywordsSteam Income Arena Nism Archies
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