Race, Class, Gender, and Health

  • Leith Mullings
  • Alaka Wali


Although this study has focused on reproductive health, African American women and men die younger and have higher rates of morbidity and mortality for most diseases than whites. Mainstream literature in medicine and epidemiology traditionally has attributed these disparities to genetic or cultural differences. Critics of these approaches have pointed to the necessity of studying race, class, and gender as structural constraints on health (Cooper, 1986; Krieger and Bassett, 1986; Krieger, 1999; Mullings, 1984, 1989).


Black Woman Reproductive Health African American Woman Public Health Intervention Social Stratum 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leith Mullings
    • 1
  • Alaka Wali
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate CenterCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.The Field Museum of Natural HistoryChicagoUSA

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