Cone Arrestin Expression and Induction in Retinoblastoma Cells
Arrestins are regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The arrestin superfamily includes visual arrestins, beta-arrestins (βarrestins) and insect chemosensory arrestins. Two members of visual arrestins have been identified in vertebrate photoreceptors: rod arrestin (also known as S-antigen or Arrestin 1) and cone arrestin (X-arrestin or Arresting. Rod arrestin was the first member to be molecularly characterized,1 and its structure and function have been extensively studied in recent years. In vertebrate rod photoreceptors, rod arrestin quenches the light-induced phototransduction cascade by binding preferentially to the light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin.2,3 Subsequently, βarrestinl4 and βarrestin25 were identified and shown to have a ubiquitous expression pattern. βarrestins have an analogous function to rod arrestin in the termination of GPCR signaling by sterically inhibiting the coupling of phosphorylated receptors to their respective G proteins.4, 5 Recent evidence suggests additional roles for βarrestins in both termination of receptor signaling and signaling to downstream effectors by interacting with clathrin-coated pits and the tyrosine kinase c-Src.6-11
KeywordsSodium Butyrate Human Retina Cone Photoreceptor Retinoblastoma Cell Retinoblastoma Cell Line
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