Advertisement

The Plasma Glucose Level - A Continuous Risk Factor for Vascular Disease in Both Diabetic and Non-Diabetic People

  • Hertzel C. Gerstein
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 498)

Abstract

In epidemiologic studies, a risk factor is a measured variable that is associated with a subsequent risk of an adverse clinical outcome. Examples or different types of risk factors include demographic measurements (e.g. age and gender), clinical measurements (e.g. waist circumference or blood pressure), biochemical measurements (e.g. plasma glucose or cholesterol), exposures to drugs or environmental factors (e.g. smoking or radiation), or exposure to diseases (e.g. diabetes or hypertension). Risk factors maybe both discrete (either present or absent) or continuous. An example of a discrete risk factor is the presence or absence of diabetes and an example of a continuous risk factor is the plasma glucose level.

Keywords

Plasma Glucose Level Relative Risk Reduction Postprandial Glucose Postprandial Glucose Level Whitehall Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:1183–1197.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 1993; 16:434–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Framingham study. JAMA 1979; 241:2035–2038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fuller JH, Shipley MJ, Rose G, Jarrett RJ, Keen H. Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in relation to degree of glycemia: the Whitehall study. Br Med J Clin Research Ed 1983; 287:867–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barrett-Connor E, Cohn BA, Wingard DL, Edelstein SL. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA 1991; 265:627–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldbourt U, Yaari S, Medalie JH. Factors predictive of long-term coronary heart disease mortality among 10059 male Israeli civil servants and municipal employees. A 23 year mortality follow-up in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study. Cardiology 1993; 82:100–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Manson JE, Coldlitz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Krolewski AS, Rosner B, et al. A prospective study of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch IntMed 1991; 151:1141–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fuller JH, Shipley MJ, Rose G, Jarrett RJ, Keen H. Coronary-heart-disease risk and impaired glucose tolerance. The Whitehall study. Lancet 1980; 8183:1373–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:233–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balkau B, Shipley M, Jarrett RJ, Pyorala K, Pyorala M, Forhan A, et al. High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:360–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gerstein HC, Pais P, Pogue J, Yusuf S. Relationship of glucose and insulin levels to the risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 1999; 33:612–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haffner SM. The importance of hyperglycemia in the nonfasting state to the development of cardiovascular disease. Endocrine Reviews 1998; 19:583–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998; 352:854–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352:837–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, Miyata T, Isami S, Motoyoshi S, et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diab Res Clin Pract 1995; 28:103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Malmberg K, Ryden L, Efendic S, Herlitz J, Nicol P, Waldenstrom A, et al. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI study): Effects on mortality at 1 year. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26:57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malmberg K, DIGAMI Study Group. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. Br Med J 1997; 314:1512–1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abrafira C, Colwell JA, Nuttall F, Sawin CT, Henderson W, Comstock JP, et al. Cardiovascular events and correlates in the veterans affairs diabetes feasibility trial. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157:181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lawson M, Gerstein HC, Tsui E, Zinman B. Effect of intensive therapy on early macrovascular disease in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:(Supp1.2) B35–B39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cowie CC, Harris MI. Physical and metabolic characteristics of persons with diabetes. In: Harris MI, Cowie CC, Stern MS, Boyko EJ, Reiber GE, Bennett PH, editors. Diabetes in America. NIH Publication No. 95–1468. 2nd ed. National Institutes of Health, 1995:117–164.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Larson MG, Beiser A, Levy D. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease. Lancet 1999; 353:89–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gerstein HC, Yusuf S. Dysglycaemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Lancet 1996; 347:949–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gerstein HC. Dysglycaemia: a cardiovascular risk factor. Diabetes Res.Clin Pract. 1998; 40 Suppl:S914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hertzel C. Gerstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism,Department of MedicineMcMaster University and The Preventive Cardiology and Therapeutics Research Program Hamilton Civic Hospitals Research CenterHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations