Modulation of Vascular K+Channels by Extracellular Messengers

  • D. J. Beech
  • A. Cheong
  • R. Flemming
  • C. Guibert
  • S. Z. Xu

Abstract

There can be no doubt from what is now a considerable volume of literature that a host of endogenous extracellular messengers activate or inhibit vascular K+ channels directly or via intracellular or intercellular coupling mechanisms. It is also true, however, that some investigators have reported that K+ channel blockers have no effect on the actions of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors that have been suggested by other authors to involve K+ channels. Such apparent contradictions may be explained in some cases by the vasculature’s heterogeneity—between species and vascular beds, and the location, size, and type of blood vessel in question. However, this is only one possible explanation. Blood vessels also seem to have a wealth of parallel or backup mechanisms. As an example, for illustration purposes, a vasodilatory extracellular messenger may simultaneously activate K+ channels and suppress voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Either effect may be sufficient for full vasodilation such that if one effect is prevented experimentally, there is no change in the size of the vasodilation. This is a parallel system. Alternatively, a backup system may exist whereby a mechanism that is not normally operative becomes essential in a certain condition, perhaps during or after ischemia. Developing this further, it is plausible (and there is supporting evidence) that vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mechanisms have commonality and thus interact in such a way that a vasodilatory mechanism is negated by one vasoconstrictor mechanism but not another. The combination of biological complexity, experimental variability, and the different experimental conditions used by investigators has, perhaps not surprisingly, produced a spectrum of conclusions from an essential functional role of K+ channels to no role at all.

Keywords

Ischemia Estrogen Carbon Monoxide Prostaglandin Noradrenaline 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Beech
    • 1
  • A. Cheong
    • 1
  • R. Flemming
    • 1
  • C. Guibert
    • 1
  • S. Z. Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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