Communication, Holism,and the Evolution of Sociopolitical Complexity

  • Carole L. Crumley
Part of the Fundamental Issues in Archaeology book series (FIAR)


In the eighteenth century, Europeans embraced church doctrine that ranked all creatures: the Great Chain of Being offered a hierarchy of divine order that both upheld class distinctions at home and served as a pious rationale for colonialism. By the end of the nineteenth century the new sciences of society had replaced religious doctrine, but scientific thought, drawing on the idea of progress, upheld similar conclusions: society had evolved “naturally” toward increasing inequality and complexity.


Europe Transportation Holocene Lution Triad 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carole L. Crumley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of North Carolina—Chapel HillNew York

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