Communication, Holism,and the Evolution of Sociopolitical Complexity
In the eighteenth century, Europeans embraced church doctrine that ranked all creatures: the Great Chain of Being offered a hierarchy of divine order that both upheld class distinctions at home and served as a pious rationale for colonialism. By the end of the nineteenth century the new sciences of society had replaced religious doctrine, but scientific thought, drawing on the idea of progress, upheld similar conclusions: society had evolved “naturally” toward increasing inequality and complexity.
KeywordsEurope Transportation Holocene Lution Triad
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