Phylogeny of Vertebrate Cytokines

  • C. J. Secombes
  • S. Bird
  • S. Hong
  • K. J. Laing
  • J. Zou
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 484)


Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the sequencing of cytokine genes in non-mammalian vertebrates. This review will focus primarily on the recent advances made in isolating interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes and chemokine genes, since they have been found in several vertebrate groups (typically fish, amphibians and birds) allowing some discussion of cytokine gene evolution. For recent advances on cytokine genes that have been isolated to date in only birds (outwith mammals), namely interferons and IL-2, the reader is referred to Schat & Kaiser (1997), Kaiser et al. 1998a,b), Sick et al. (1998), Michalski et al. (1999) and Kaiser & Mariani (1999).


Rainbow Trout Chemokine Gene EMBL Accession Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction Hybrid Striped Bass 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Secombes
    • 1
  • S. Bird
    • 1
  • S. Hong
    • 1
  • K. J. Laing
    • 1
  • J. Zou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of AberdeenUK

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