Phylogeny of Vertebrate Cytokines
Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the sequencing of cytokine genes in non-mammalian vertebrates. This review will focus primarily on the recent advances made in isolating interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes and chemokine genes, since they have been found in several vertebrate groups (typically fish, amphibians and birds) allowing some discussion of cytokine gene evolution. For recent advances on cytokine genes that have been isolated to date in only birds (outwith mammals), namely interferons and IL-2, the reader is referred to Schat & Kaiser (1997), Kaiser et al. 1998a,b), Sick et al. (1998), Michalski et al. (1999) and Kaiser & Mariani (1999).
KeywordsCysteine Interferon Thrombin Kelly Phorbol
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